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M m domination in ireland

Yoga Pants Pornstars. Holy Porn Pics. Dana Delany Nude Exit To Eden. Anton secure fetish knocked out. Couple stuck together after having sex in ocean. Prostitute in Bluefields. Asa And Zoe Voss. Men s pantyhose blog. Teen curvy selfie nude. Hentai cum out of mouth. Joe Schmidt will have flown out of Chicago on Sunday satisfied that Ireland have potentially remedied a worrying black mark. Referee Nigel Owens only penalised them three times at Soldier Field, a meagre level of illegality in their rout of Italy. It signals a positive November series return to normal service by a M m domination in ireland with a usually squeaky clean reputation. Amid the hoopla of clinching Grand Slam success in England last March and then heading to Australia to win a three-Test series in June, it went largely unnoticed how Ireland lurched from saints to sinners in ethnic online Nice sex video process. Especially for a team that prides itself on staying the right side of the law. That was drastic given the saintliness of M m domination in ireland went before, just 10 yellows and a solitary red in 54 matches. With identifying Irish shenanigans usually akin to searching for a needle in a haystack, being well behaved is usually a stand-out characteristic in the five-year, game Schmidt era. The concession of just eight penalties per game is their stated target and following their latest American M m domination in ireland, just penalties have been conceded an average of 8. Forty-three of the head-to-head penalty counts have also been won against their opposition. They have Aussie Nic Berry, an official they have never encountered before, in charge versus Argentina followed by the appointment of Wayne Barnes, the more familiar English referee, for the series highlight against New Zealand. Ireland full-back Jordan Larmour Getty Images. They were also card M m domination in ireland. In sharp contrast, the All Blacks and the Wallabies were penalised 39 times in those games, a penalty every six minutes, and they also suffered five yellow cards. Good habits are the way of the Schmidt world. A short message for a short fuck session Adult Phone Clip.

Sexy teen fucked next door story. Therefore, they have got to do a lap around the pitch and when they get back they will be tired.

Kilcummin and Beaufort secure Kingdom domination in Croke Park

What good behaviour does for Ireland is help level the playing field. They are never going to consistently match the more M m domination in ireland sides in the skills department, but being disciplined goes a long way towards bridging the gap.

In their 39 matches since lifting the World Cup the All Blacks, whose concession tally was seven in Japan, have conceded a total of penalties a per-game average of 9. It was better discipline that gave Ireland the edge against the All Blacks in Chicago and the hope is it can help do so again in Dublin on November Not a subscriber?

Sign up M m domination in ireland. A well constructed move in the 32nd minute involving Michael Murphy and McDonnell, who put Leighton Glynn in the clear meant that even the sub-plot of the second Test was now a foregone conclusion once the Wicklow man slotted his second goal of the series. At half-time the lead was Murphy, whose aggression in the tackle combined effectively with M m domination in ireland great finishing talent, scored seven on the night but was yellow carded for rough play in the 34th minute — a risk his physically confrontational style was at times running.

With Australia forcing hardly any activity on the scoreboard operators, Ireland simply had to keep their own total rising, with M m domination in ireland Walsh glad to oblige. The match wound up without serious incident as Ireland cruised to success and the recapture of the Cormac McAnallen Cup. Monday — Sunday, April 15th — 21st. We use cookies to personalise content, target and report on ads, to provide social media features and to analyse our traffic.

Ireland's domination complete Sat, Nov 5, More from The Irish Times Rugby. Carey would continue to keep the scoreboard ticking over for the men from the Kingdom finishing with a personal haul of The junior title will return to Kerry were it M m domination in ireland resided for seven of the last ten years as the competition kingpins continue to dominate.

We use cookies to personalise content, target and report on ads, to provide social media features and to analyse our traffic. Kilcummin and Beaufort secure Kingdom domination in Croke Park The two Kerry sides ensured the intermediate and junior M m domination in ireland will both head south Sat, Feb M m domination in ireland, Beaufort Easkey In the junior decider, Beaufort eased to a record breaking point win over Easkey to ensure a Kerry double of national crowns.

More from The Article source Times Rugby. Sponsored Putting source Dyson V11 through its paces. Moving up? Tips to increase the value of your home when selling. Cork becomes focus as first-time buyer's mortgage event heads south. Borzaga and J. Nyssens, Chapter 8, pp.

Social Enterprise in Rural Communities. National Rural Network. Building the Social Economy: New Areas of Work, Enterprise and Development.

Milkn Fuck Watch Video Chinese pussy. Kilcummin and Beaufort secure Kingdom domination in Croke Park The two Kerry sides ensured the intermediate and junior titles will both head south Sat, Feb 9, , Beaufort Easkey In the junior decider, Beaufort eased to a record breaking point win over Easkey to ensure a Kerry double of national crowns. More from The Irish Times Rugby. Sponsored Putting the Dyson V11 through its paces. Moving up? Tips to increase the value of your home when selling. Cork becomes focus as first-time buyer's mortgage event heads south. Commenting on The Irish Times has changed. The study of Irish is compulsory for Leaving Certificate students, but some may qualify for an exemption in some circumstances, such as learning difficulties or entering the country after age Healthcare in Ireland is provided by both public and private healthcare providers. Every resident of Ireland is entitled to receive health care through the public health care system, which is managed by the Health Service Executive and funded by general taxation. A person may be required to pay a subsidised fee for certain health care received; this depends on income, age, illness or disability. All maternity services are provided free of charge and children up to the age of 6 months. Emergency care is provided to patients who present to a hospital emergency department. In some circumstances this fee is not payable or may be waived. Anyone holding a European Health Insurance Card is entitled to free maintenance and treatment in public beds in Health Service Executive and voluntary hospitals. Outpatient services are also provided for free. However, the majority of patients on median incomes or above are required to pay subsidised hospital charges. Private health insurance is available to the population for those who want to avail of it. The average life expectancy in Ireland in is 81 years OECD average life expectancy in was 80 years , with Ireland has three levels of education: The education systems are largely under the direction of the Government via the Minister for Education and Skills. Recognised primary and secondary schools must adhere to the curriculum established by the relevant authorities. Education is compulsory between the ages of six and fifteen years, and all children up to the age of eighteen must complete the first three years of secondary, including one sitting of the Junior Certificate examination. There are approximately 3, primary schools in Ireland. Schools run by religious organisations, but receiving public money and recognition, cannot discriminate against pupils based upon religion or lack thereof. A sanctioned system of preference does exist, where students of a particular religion may be accepted before those who do not share the ethos of the school, in a case where a school's quota has already been reached. The Leaving Certificate , which is taken after two years of study, is the final examination in the secondary school system. Those intending to pursue higher education normally take this examination, with access to third-level courses generally depending on results obtained from the best six subjects taken, on a competitive basis. The Programme for International Student Assessment , coordinated by the OECD , currently ranks Ireland as having the fourth highest reading score, ninth highest science score and thirteenth highest mathematics score, among OECD countries, in its assessment. In addition, 37 percent of Ireland's population has a university or college degree , which is among the highest percentages in the world. Religious freedom is constitutionally provided for in Ireland. Christianity is the predominant religion, and while Ireland remains a predominantly Catholic country, the percentage of the population who identified as Catholic on the census has fallen sharply from Other results from the census are: The Church of Ireland , at 2. Membership declined throughout the twentieth century, but experienced an increase early in the 21st century, as have other small Christian denominations. Immigration has contributed to a growth in Hindu and Muslim populations. Saint Patrick is the only one commonly recognised as the patron saint. Saint Patrick's Day is celebrated on 17 March in Ireland and abroad as the Irish national day, with parades and other celebrations. As with other predominantly Catholic European states, Ireland underwent a period of legal secularisation in the late twentieth century. In , the article of the Constitution naming specific religious groups was deleted by the Fifth Amendment in a referendum. Article 44 remains in the Constitution: It shall hold His Name in reverence, and shall respect and honour religion. Religious studies was introduced as an optional Junior Certificate subject in Although many schools are run by religious organisations, a secularist trend is occurring among younger generations. Ireland's culture was for centuries predominantly Gaelic , and it remains one of the six principal Celtic nations. Following the Anglo-Norman invasion in the 12th century, and gradual British conquest and colonisation beginning in the 16th century, Ireland became influenced by English and Scottish culture. Subsequently, Irish culture, though distinct in many aspects, shares characteristics with the Anglosphere , Catholic Europe , and other Celtic regions. The Irish diaspora , one of the world's largest and most dispersed, has contributed to the globalisation of Irish culture, producing many prominent figures in art, music, and science. Ireland has made a significant contribution to world literature in both the English and Irish languages. Modern Irish fiction began with the publishing of the novel Gulliver's Travels by Jonathan Swift. Bram Stoker is best known as the author of the novel Dracula. James Joyce — published his most famous work Ulysses in , which is an interpretation of the Odyssey set in Dublin. Edith Somerville continued writing after the death of her partner Martin Ross in Dublin's Annie M. Smithson was one of several authors catering for fans of romantic fiction in the s and s. Patricia Lynch was a prolific children's author in the 20th century, while Eoin Colfer 's works were NYT Best Sellers in this genre in the early 21st century. The history of Irish theatre begins with the expansion of the English administration in Dublin during the early 17th century, and since then, Ireland has significantly contributed to English drama. In its early history, theatrical productions in Ireland tended to serve political purposes, but as more theatres opened and the popular audience grew, a more diverse range of entertainments were staged. Many Dublin-based theatres developed links with their London equivalents, and British productions frequently found their way to the Irish stage. However, most Irish playwrights went abroad to establish themselves. In the 18th century, Oliver Goldsmith and Richard Brinsley Sheridan were two of the most successful playwrights on the London stage at that time. At the beginning of the 20th century, theatre companies dedicated to the staging of Irish plays and the development of writers, directors and performers began to emerge, which allowed many Irish playwrights to learn their trade and establish their reputations in Ireland rather than in Britain or the United States. Irish traditional music has remained vibrant, despite globalising cultural forces, and retains many traditional aspects. It has influenced various music genres, such as American country and roots music, and to some extent modern rock. It has occasionally been blended with styles such as rock and roll and punk rock. Ireland has also produced many internationally known artists in other genres, such as rock, pop, jazz, and blues. Ireland's best selling musical act is the rock band U2 , who have sold million copies of their albums worldwide since their formation in Opera Ireland produces large-scale operas in Dublin, the Opera Theatre Company tours its chamber-style operas throughout the country, and the annual Wexford Opera Festival , which promotes lesser-known operas, takes place during October and November. Ireland has participated in the Eurovision Song Contest since The phenomenon Riverdance originated as an interval performance during the contest. Irish dance can broadly be divided into social dance and performance dance. There are also many stylistic differences between these two forms. Irish social dance is a living tradition, and variations in particular dances are found across the country. In some places dances are deliberately modified and new dances are choreographed. Performance dance is traditionally referred to as stepdance. Irish stepdance , popularised by the show Riverdance , is notable for its rapid leg movements, with the body and arms being kept largely stationary. The solo stepdance is generally characterised by a controlled but not rigid upper body, straight arms, and quick, precise movements of the feet. The solo dances can either be in "soft shoe" or "hard shoe". The country instead had an extended period of Iron Age architecture. Christianity introduced simple monastic houses , such as Clonmacnoise , Skellig Michael and Scattery Island. A stylistic similarity has been remarked between these double monasteries and those of the Copts of Egypt. Castles were built by the Anglo-Normans during the late 12th century, such as Dublin Castle and Kilkenny Castle , [] and the concept of the planned walled trading town was introduced, which gained legal status and several rights by grant of a Charter under Feudalism. These charters specifically governed the design of these towns. These episodes of planned settlement account for the majority of present-day towns throughout the country. Gothic cathedrals, such as St Patrick's , were also introduced by the Normans. Beginning with the American designed art deco church at Turner's Cross in , Irish architecture followed the international trend towards modern and sleek building styles since the 20th century. The Royal Institute of the Architects of Ireland regulates the practice of architecture in the state. All these channels are available on Saorview , the national free-to-air digital terrestrial television service. Subscription-based television providers operating in Ireland include Virgin Media and Sky. Supported by the Irish Film Board , the Irish film industry grew significantly since the s, with the promotion of indigenous films as well as the attraction of international productions like Braveheart and Saving Private Ryan. A large number of regional and local radio stations are available countrywide. It also operates four national DAB radio stations. There are two independent national stations: Today FM and Newstalk. Ireland has a traditionally competitive print media, which is divided into daily national newspapers and weekly regional newspapers, as well as national Sunday editions. The strength of the British press is a unique feature of the Irish print media scene, with the availability of a wide selection of British published newspapers and magazines. Irish cuisine was traditionally based on meat and dairy products, supplemented with vegetables and seafood. Examples of popular Irish cuisine include boxty , colcannon , coddle , stew , and bacon and cabbage. Ireland is famous for the full Irish breakfast , which involves a fried or grilled meal generally consisting of rashers, egg, sausage, white and black pudding, and fried tomato. Apart from the influence by European and international dishes, there has been an emergence of a new Irish cuisine based on traditional ingredients handled in new ways. Shellfish have increased in popularity, especially due to the high quality shellfish available from the country's coastline. The most popular fish include salmon and cod. Traditional breads include soda bread and wheaten bread. Barmbrack is a yeasted bread with added sultanas and raisins , traditionally eaten on Halloween. Popular everyday beverages among the Irish include tea and coffee. James's Gate in Dublin. Irish whiskey is also popular throughout the country and comes in various forms, including single malt, single grain, and blended whiskey. Gaelic football and hurling are the traditional sports of Ireland as well as most popular spectator sports. Other Gaelic games organised by the association include Gaelic handball and rounders. Soccer is the third most popular spectator sport and has the highest level of participation. The Irish Rugby Football Union is the governing body of rugby union , which is played at local and international levels on an all-Ireland basis, and has produced players such as Brian O'Driscoll and Ronan O'Gara , who were on the team that won the Grand Slam in The success of the Irish Cricket Team in the Cricket World Cup has led to an increase in the popularity of cricket , which is also administered on an all-Ireland basis by Cricket Ireland. Professional domestic matches are played between the major cricket unions of Leinster , Munster , Northern , and North West. Netball is represented by the Ireland national netball team. Golf is another popular sport in Ireland, with over courses countrywide. Horse Racing has a very large presence in Ireland, with one of the most influential breeding and racing operations based in the country. Racing takes place at courses at The Curragh Racecourse in County Kildare and at Leopardstown Racecourse , racing taking place since the s, but racing taking place as early as the early s. The social economy is typically said to include charities, co-operatives, voluntary, mutual associations and non-profits. In this context, in early , the social economy was defined as that part of the economy, between the private and public sectors, which engages in economic activity in order to meet social objectives FAS Social enterprises were identified as one type of enterprise within this part of the economy. The objective of this paper is to discuss how social economy and social enterprise are understood by academics, practitioners and policy makers in Ireland and to explain how WISEs have evolved as the dominant Irish social enterprise model to date. The paper is an analysis of relevant policy documents, academic publications and draws on the few empirical studies that have been published on the sector. Although Ireland has a long and rich tradition of social economy type organisations, they have not been the focus of academic attention as social enterprises. The role of Christian charitable organisations, most notably the Roman Catholic Church in fields of health, education and welfare has been documented see Ruddle and Donoghue ; Powell and Guerin ; Jaffro , but they have received relatively little attention as social enterprises, per se. Since the s the decline in the numbers of religious personnel has led to their gradual withdrawal from these services with the state taking a more proactive role in developing partnerships with the broader voluntary and community, or charity, sector for the purpose of delivering services and tackling social and economic exclusion in Irish society. The social economy has been subjected to increased levels of academic and policy attention since the early s, with a particular focus on the concept of social enterprise. Use of the term social enterprise in Irish academic discourse tends to reflect either US work on the non-profit sector e. These different academic and policy perspectives have contributed to a general ambiguity about what constitutes the social economy and to a variety of approaches to identifying and mapping the sector. In general, academic approaches to identifying and mapping social enterprises can be broadly characterised as either US or European depending on the weight given to individualistic and hierarchical organisational structures, on the one hand, or collectivisation and democratic ownership on the other Teasdale Even though the term social enterprise had been used in public policy discourse from the early s, it did not appear in any academic mapping exercise of the Irish non-profit sector influenced by the US non-profit approach until a philanthropic-sponsored study of the sector was published in Earlier mapping exercises of Irish non-profits e. Concerns were also raised about accountability within, and regulation of, the sector. A mapping exercise in 4 used the International Classification of Non-Profit Organisations and did not refer specifically to social enterprises. Prizeman and Crossan defined social entrepreneurial enterprises as enterprises, businesses or projects that are run to provide products and services which generate social and environmental return , emphasising the change maker or social entrepreneur, social mission and innovation Forty-two per cent of all social entrepreneurial enterprises were involved in the provision of some State service, all enterprises were driven by social mission and had applied some form of innovation to achieve their social agenda. The study demonstrated the highly diverse and multifaceted nature of the Irish social economy and the complex missions, organisational structures, networks and entrepreneurial behaviours that characterised individual Irish social entrepreneurs and social enterprises Prizeman and Crossan These categories were: Work integration social enterprises provide work and labour market integration primarily for people with disabilities in what were conventionally referred to as workshops or sheltered employment. There is a long tradition in Ireland of using voluntary organisations for the provision of services to people with intellectual and physical disability, which dates back to the early s and was formalised in the Health Act. One of the largest Irish organisations in this field is Rehab. Rehab also oversees one of the largest Irish non-governmental employer of people with disabilities, Rehab social enterprises. These enterprises provides integrated employment opportunities to persons with a disability, out of a total jobs, across a range of sectors including: Structured as co-operatives, credit unions provide financial services and have a membership in Ireland of almost three million, representing a greater proportion of the total population than in almost any other country. The number of credit unions has remained relatively stable over the last two decades with very little contraction in the sector due to amalgamations, transfers or liquidations. Local development organisations or community-based service organisations emerged in the s as part of the state response to the persistence of long-term unemployment and disadvantaged communities and gave rise to a new generation of social enterprises in the context of state support for labour market integration. However, this EMES-type approach was not applied to any systematic mapping of the Irish social economy until a European Commission EC sponsored study was undertaken in , as part of a mapping exercise of social enterprise activity and eco-systems in 29 EU countries. The operational definition of social enterprises used for this latter exercise was based on that used in the EC Social Business Initiative EC 9 and closely mirrored the widely accepted EMES definition of social enterprise. Six types of Irish organisations that might be considered as social enterprises were identified. These included: This inclusion reflects the influence of the US social innovation school of thought. The mapping exercise also referred to the interchangeable use of concepts such as social enterprise and social entrepreneurship in Irish discourse, reflecting the general vagueness surrounding the concept in Ireland. Irish academic discourse, and Irish studies of the social economy and social enterprise, reflects what Teasdale By contrast, in Irish policy discourse, conception of the social economy has been more vigorous and less confused, having been strongly influenced, since the early s, by a European policy perspective that promoted the social economy and social enterprise as a community-based strategy to tackle unemployment and social and economic exclusion. The terms social economy and social enterprise first emerged in Irish policy discourse in the s. Reflecting a European policy 10 trend, the initial national policy debate on the sector was influenced by the National Economic Social Forum NESF study of the job potential of the service sector which identified social enterprises as having the potential to provide goods and services to disadvantaged communities in the instance of market and public failure, and to facilitate local labour market integration NESF The NESF suggested that the activities of organisations operating in the social economy have certain distinguishing features: The NESF recommended that government action be taken to develop the social economy by creating support structures for social economy enterprises and providing subsidies to those enterprises that would recruit from the unemployed NESF These recommendations were subsequently supported by advocacy groups for the unemployed. The brief of the working group was to undertake a detailed examination of the potential of the social economy to provide employment and services in disadvantaged communities. The Group defined the social economy as that part of the economy, between the private and public sectors, which engages in economic activity in order to meet social objectives. They identified three types of social enterprises as targets for government support. These were: Community Businesses: The Working Group recommended the establishment of a national social economy programme that would use existing resources wherever possible to support the sector, particularly the existing Community Employment CE programme. These state programmes became the key stimulus and support for the development of Irish social enterprises. The objective of the Social Economy Programme SEP was to support social enterprises with specific characteristics including community ownership, a local development focus, and the provision of work integration opportunities for the long-term unemployed. The SEP was introduced at a time when Ireland was experiencing virtually full employment and attracting significant inward migration to fill the jobs available. Thus, participating social enterprises were required to have a specific focus on funding local services and providing employment opportunities for particularly disadvantaged groups including those distant from the labour market , or to be addressing market or public service failure in communities, usually as a consequence of either geographical or social isolation. In this way the establishment of new social enterprises was linked explicitly to government objectives of local and community development, the provision of local services and labour market re-integration. An evaluation of the SEP, published in , found that the programme had limited capacity to support the development of social enterprises and that there was insufficient start-up support and enterprise training. The evaluation also questioned the long-term sustainability of the social enterprises supported under the programme WRC In light of the perceived inadequacy of the SEP, PLANET made a further policy submission to the Irish Government in in which they called for a mapping of the sector and the development of a new national policy to strengthen and support the Irish Third Sector. Social enterprises were argued to be typically launched by local citizens and characterised by: The match wound up without serious incident as Ireland cruised to success and the recapture of the Cormac McAnallen Cup. Monday — Sunday, April 15th — 21st. We use cookies to personalise content, target and report on ads, to provide social media features and to analyse our traffic. Ireland's domination complete Sat, Nov 5, , More from The Irish Times Rugby. Sponsored Putting the Dyson V11 through its paces. Moving up? However, as can be seen from figure 4. Clarke Religious houses Appearance of parishes was just one manifestation of the major reforms in the Church in the twelfth century, which saw the island divided into several territorial dioceses and arch dioceses, largely representative of the contemporary configurations of secular and ecclesiastic power Watt , It is at this point that the decline in fortunes of many earlier ecclesiastic institutions accelerated, as many sites, such as Clonmacnoise, lost considerable power due to these reforms. The reforms saw the introduction of a number of Continental religious orders, beginning with the Cistercian foundation at Mellifont in Watt , 43; Duffy , 55 , and accelerating in the Anglo-Norman period. This must be regarded as part of the colonial process, as it drew Ireland further into the European scene cf. Martin b, Ab initio these new houses had politically powerful patrons, a pattern which would continue into the Anglo-Norman colonial period. This patronage associated the secular elite with the contemporary forces of modernity, and also with a pan- European aristocracy. By linking themselves with such an important ideological source of power, these patrons were significantly bolstering their power resources. The Church was the principal ideology-forming institution in medieval Europe. Berger and Luckmann ; Berger Therefore, the Church must be regarded as the principal agent of reification in medieval Ireland, and indeed medieval Europe. Social relations may become reified, in that they can become regarded as being as natural and unchangeable as the laws of nature. This can mean that an existing social hierarchy can be regarded as being as natural and unchangeable as the sun crossing the sky on a daily basis cf. Gramsci Ergo, the Church, and the new religious orders conducting pastoral activity in the community could help legitimate colonial activity, or indeed legitimate resistance to it. The Normans and the groups subsequently related to them managed to have themselves associated with religious reform, meaning the Church was in many ways favourable to their expansionary activity. There also was another key connection, that of a shared habitus cf. Bourdieu , between the new secular and ecclesiastical elite. They often came from the same families or social circles, and thus had a similar world view, with one group favourable to the other, much the same as the relationship between politicians and bankers in modern society, where a shared habitus makes each group favourable to the other cf. Mills Some orders seem to have had a preference for urban locations, others for rural locations, as can be surmised from figures 4. Religious houses seem to avoid areas of high early ecclesiastic settlement, cf. Although they did contribute to their social obsolescence there seems to be little physical replacement of older ecclesiastic sites in figure 4. Evidence for the mode of agriculture has been provided by excavations such as those at Kells, Co. Kilkenny Clyne The plant remains assemblage at Kells point towards a wheat based economy, a pattern repeated at other similar sites, and which was a departure from the predominantly barley based package practiced by earlier ecclesiastic sites Monk , Roche , notes that religious houses seem to be absent from the area of densest Anglo-Norman settlement in southern Wexford, as can be seen from figures 4. At present this largely defies explanation, but it may be related to the extent of infeudation there, in that there was no land left to grant. A number of religious houses are in close association to non-urban mottes, such as at Glascarraig, Co. Carlow, the unclassified house at Loughill and the motte at Castlemarket, and the Cistercians at Barrowmount and the motte at Powerstown East, Co. From this table it can be surmised that c. Younger ST. The sites are usually rectilinear, characterised by wide, usually flat-bottomed, sometimes water-filled, ditches around a central area Barry ; They were part of a process of cultivation of comparably peripheral land, probably dating to between , after the manors had already been laid out and granted Empey , Barry Their low density in the heavily infeudated areas of east Waterford and south Wexford supports this, cf. Lydon b, ff. In some areas, such as central Wexford, a number of them seem to loosely cluster around castle sites however, possibly part of a localised settlement hierarchy. Their densest distribution runs south-west to north east through the centre of Co. Higher elevations are avoided, which seems to indicate a predominantly arable based agricultural package practiced by the inhabitants of the sites. The fact that densest distributions are in areas of low Gaelic secular settlement further supports this, cf. There does not seem to be any direct spatial association between the distributions of moated sites and early ecclesiastic sites, cf. It was characterised by a hierarchy of colonial settlement, centred on castles and urban centres. These sites were often located on earlier sites involved with the processes of expansion and consolidation. That is not to say that the mottes and ringworks involved in the earlier phases became obsolete, rather they were incorporated into the settlement hierarchy when not replaced, and they themselves functioned as local centres of domination. The land became substantially infeudated quite quickly, and each of the castles would have served as a manorial centre. Moated sites, dispersed houses and deserted settlements are all indicators of extensive colonial activity in the area, and each would have had its place in the settlement hierarchy, just as their occupants had their place in a reified social hierarchy, legitimised by the Church. The period saw the appearance of a network of parishes, usually coextensive to manorial divisions, each with its own church, providing material evidence for the extent and density of Anglo-Norman settlement in the region. The period also saw the appearance of a number of largely urban Continental religious houses in the region, indicative of the relationship between the first two orders of medieval society, those who pray and those who fight. Clare was confined east of the Fergus Estuary, and centred on a number of royal land grants. The stone castle at Bunratty would have replaced the motte, which in turn may have replaced an initial ringwork. The stone castles at Adare and Limerick replaced ringwork castles, as noted earlier. The stone castle at Quin was begun in Hodkinson , 56 , perhaps in response to the loss of caislen Clair Atha Da Charad in A number of speculative land grants were made in the greater Limerick area in the late twelfth century. It would seem as though the area to the immediate north of Limerick was intensely settled, as there is evidence for three nucleated rural settlements there, probably indicative of a local settlement hierarchy. As mentioned earlier, Killaloe also probably witnessed a degree of pre-Anglo-Norman urbanisation, and it and Bunratty would seem to be part of a more regional hierarchy centred on Limerick. The deserted medieval settlement at Feenish Island in the Fergus Estuary would seem to be connected to this settlement. It may also have been the deserted settlement at Clonroad. The settlement at Quin may have been Anglo-Norman, based around the castle. However, the castle was most likely in Anglo-Norman hands for years, and a Franciscan friary replaced it after the colony fell into decline, and the settlement may actually have been associated with this phase of activity, as at Ennis. Parishes The distribution of medieval parishes in Co. Clare may not be of the same use as that of Co. Many of the parishes were in Gaelic areas, and corresponded to Gaelic land divisions. Furthermore, I was unable to separate the pre churches dataset for Clare or the parts of Limerick and Kerry included in the project. Religious Houses Only the religious houses in Co. Clare have been considered, Clare forms the centre of the case study. Augustinian Kilshanny is deep in Gaelic territory in the west of the county. The deserted settlement at Corcomroe must therefore be related to the abbey rather than to any colonial activity. The abbey Inchicronan lies close to the possible ringwork and hall house at Ballycarroll, and the abbey on Canon Island is located across the Fergus Estuary from the main zone of Anglo-Norman influence. The unclassified houses at Cratloe and Illaunmore may well be connected to Anglo- Norman activity. Clare, with the highest concentration in the mid-west being along the south of the Shannon Estuary, in an area associated with high density Gaelic secular settlement figure 3. This concentration can be seen as indicating a higher Anglo-Norman presence in the area in the late thirteenth and early fourteenth centuries cf. Empey ; Barry However, most of the activity in Clare dates to the same period, which may indicate that moated sites were monuments of expansion and consolidation there. In contrast with the south-east, all of the moated sites in the mid-west seem to be in areas of high Gaelic secular settlement, possibly due to a forced appropriation of land from an incumbent Gaelic population. Also of interest is the fact that there seems to be no association between moated sites and pre-existing Anglo-Norman settlement. It also seems as though it corresponds to the possible hinterland for the town in the Hiberno-Scandinavian period, possibly indicating a continuity of Hiberno- Scandinavian settlement cf. Bradley The three moated sites in west Clare are interesting. The southernmost, at Colmanstown on the Shannon Estuary would seem to be part of the pattern on the other shore. It may be an indicator of organic colonial settlement, where a family or group moved beyond the frontier of colonial expansion, similar to Israeli settlers in Palestine in recent years. It may also be an indicator of acculturation, in this case the native adoption of a colonial settlement form. The moated sites at Castlepark and Finnor More are probably example of the latter process, a phenomenon also noted at Cloonfree, Co. It is also of interest that these two moated sites are located close to ecclesiastic sites. The remaining moated site in Co. Clare is located in the area most associated with Anglo-Norman activity. Even the appearance of moated sites may be representative of expansion rather than domination. For Co. Clare, there seems to have been no colonial patronage of Continental religious houses. However, this does not entirely indicate a complete loss of power by colonists in the rest of Ireland, rather that the London government lost control over them. The retraction of the colony was due to the convergence of a number of causal factors, environmental, social and political. It provides an important case-study for studying the declines of colonies in other locations in space and time. Other examples of this would be the German Lithuanian settlements and the Crusades Bartlett , The Anglo-Norman colonial endeavour in Ireland effectively ran out of people and could expand no further, and could not fully consolidate what it held, especially in contact zone areas outside of the colonial heartland of the east and south-east. As can be seen from the cartographic evidence provided, even in the densely colonised south-east there were areas where Gaelic settlement possibly continued, probably due to its suitability the pastoral agriculture practiced by such groups. This certainly provides evidence for a half-conquered land. Lydon ; Lydon b; Watt a; Watt b; Duffy , ff. Many of the principal Gaelic septs had never been displaced or acculturated by the arrival of the Anglo-Normans, even in areas close to the main zone of activity cf. Empey , 89, Bartlett , Empey , 89 notes that the position of the Anglo-Norman lords in many areas was already precarious before the close of the thirteenth century. He draws attention to the various impositions of levies and protection payments being made to the Gaelic Irish in the later thirteenth century in Kilkenny. Wexford from areas such as Forth and Bargy , Another major causal factor was the loss of control by the London government over colonial magnates in Ireland cf. Watta; b. By the thirteenth century, many of the large land grants in Ireland were held by absentee lords, including the king, which further destabilised colonial authority in Ireland. Many of these grants were taken up by groups such as the Butlers, further boosting their authority. This can be seen to have occurred in a number of historical cases, such as England under Stephen or John, or in this case in Anglo- Norman Ireland. The rise of the Butlers provides an excellent example of this process, and one which partly occurs within the confines of the south-east case-study. However, such marriage ties did not impede their competing for position with each in a similar fashion to pre-Anglo-Norman Gaelic society. Intermarriage brings the analysis to two important processes at work in colonial Ireland, acculturation and creolisation. Creolisation is the maintenance, and often exaggeration, of cultural traits of the colonial point of origin in a colonial setting, with later cultural developments in the homeland failing to take place in the more conservative colonial setting. A prime example of this would be the development of Creole society in Latin America. Therefore, as a means of maintaining an identity threatened by being a minority in a colonial setting, creolisation led elements of Anglo-Norman society to resemble the society of twelfth century England long into the fourteenth century and beyond. Turning to acculturation, which is the process of transference of elements of one society to another over the course of their contact in geographical and cultural space, there is evidence for it occurring in both directions. The early generations of Anglo-Norman settlers had intermarried with Gaelic elements of society, a common feature in Norman colonial activity since the years of the settlement of Normandy itself Lydon , This would have greatly contributed to the adoption of elements of the Gaelic language and customs, as mothers are key transmitters of cultural traits, being much more involved in early habitus formation than fathers cf. Elias ; Bourdieu The interaction between children crucial for understanding processes such as this cf. Pinker , and further investigation of this aspect of cultural syncretism in Ireland could provide fruitful results. Both processes are usually taken as being signs of colonial degeneracy in the homeland, as can be seen from the various descriptions of Spanish Creoles back in Castile in the early modern period, where Los Peninsulares regarded their Creole cousins in South America as totally degenerate in body and mind and no longer true Spaniards cf. Darwin ; Colas Similar views were held in London regarding the medieval colonists in Ireland, and Lydon , 57 draws attention to the use of the term degeneres from in a series of parliamentary enactments related to the English in Ireland who had adopted certain Irish habits. However, the case for acculturation should not be overstated, as even as late as the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries the descendants of the Anglo-Norman colonists were still regarded as foreigners by the majority of the Gaelic Irish population. Although by that point they had repeatedly married into many Gaelic families, especially on the periphery of their influence, the very fact that they began to refer to themselves as Old English in the seventeenth century shows that in order to retain their identity they defined themselves in contradistinction to the other groups on the island. The so-called Gaelic resurgence from the thirteenth century later may have arrested some of these trends of acculturation. The decline is materially manifested in the abandonment of various castles and settlements, such as at the borough at Bunratty and a number of deserted medieval settlements. However, as already stated in the case of the latter many remained in use until the early modern period, and it is these that are the most visible in the landscape cf. Environmental factors may have played a significant role in the decline of marginal contact zone boroughs such as Bunratty, which would have been affected most by the decline in weather conditions, which led to worsening harvests and the Great European Famine. They would also have been affected by the failure to continue the expansion of the colony, the devolution of power in colonial Ireland and the attendant resurgence of the Gaelic elite. Scandinavian and Anglo-Norman Colonialism Considered Scandinavian colonialism in Ireland seems to have been more commercially orientated than land orientated. This was probably due to the failure to win any tracts of land in the ninth century, although there may have been rural settlement in areas of the western seaboard devoid of Gaelic settlement, and in similar conditions to Scandinavian settlement in Scotland cf. Kelly ; Barrett ; It seems to have been a largely urban phenomenon in its mature phase, and those urban centres may have had hinterlands. Anglo-Norman colonialism was totalising, involving the reordering of geographic and social space in the areas into which it spread. With identifying Irish shenanigans usually akin to searching for a needle in a haystack, being well behaved is usually a stand-out characteristic in the five-year, game Schmidt era. The concession of just eight penalties per game is their stated target and following their latest American trip, just penalties have been conceded an average of 8. Forty-three of the head-to-head penalty counts have also been won against their opposition. They have Aussie Nic Berry, an official they have never encountered before, in charge versus Argentina followed by the appointment of Wayne Barnes, the more familiar English referee, for the series highlight against New Zealand. Ireland full-back Jordan Larmour Getty Images..

Dublin, Ireland: Partnership Working Group on the Social Economy. The Stationery Office. Pestoff, V. Beyond the Market and State. Aldershot, UK.

M m domination in ireland

Powell, F. Civil Society and Social Policy: Voluntarism in Ireland.

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Koch, Celtic culture: In sharp contrast, the All Blacks and the Wallabies were penalised 39 times in those games, a penalty every six minutes, and they also suffered five yellow cards. Good habits are the way of the Schmidt world. Their record lowest penalty count was two conceded against Italy in the Six Nations. There was just three in games versus Australia and Italy twice after Saturday , four against New Zealand twice and Wales also twice and tallies of five against New Zealand, Australia and England. Between August and February they were beaten on the penalty count in seven of a dozen matches. We use cookies to personalise content, target and report on ads, to provide social media features and to analyse our traffic. Ireland's domination complete Sat, Nov 5, , More from The Irish Times Rugby. Sponsored Putting the Dyson V11 through its paces. Moving up? Tips to increase the value of your home when selling. Cork becomes focus as first-time buyer's mortgage event heads south. Cultural homogeneity does not necessarily preclude genetic biological heterogeneity. Despite the existence of colonial society, the ethnic make-up of that society might be mixed, as will be discussed regarding Hiberno-Scandinavian towns. The monuments in this project belong to a number of groupings: Gaelic, Hiberno- Scandinavian and Anglo-Norman. Colonial monuments also can be seen as basically belonging to one of three sub-processes of colonialism: While these sub-processes will be considered in full later in the thesis, along with related processes such as acculturation, hybridisation and creolisation it is worth discussing them at this point. Norse and Viking are largely interchangeable, although neither is entirely accurate, as there were many sub-groupings within Scandinavian society cf. Nelson ; Roesdahl In Ireland, they referred to themselves as Ostmen. The terms English and Norman have both been used to describe the post invaders, however the term Anglo-Norman is more correct, as it refers to the level of cultural change undergone by the Norman elite in their interaction with the English land and people, just as the term Norman does for the Danes in Normandy. However, Anglo-Norman as a term is not perfect, itself being short hand for a disparate group with ties to the Welsh Marches, England, Anjou, Normandy and Flanders. Trying to ascertain the ethnic make-up of that population is even more difficult. Without total excavation, the populations of the Hiberno-Scandinavian towns must remain in the realm of conjecture. The figures in the annals are prone to literary convention, exaggeration and hyperbole, as is Giraldus Cambrensis. The high medieval population was probably somewhere between , and 1,, Russell , Glasscock notes that the flow of settlers from the east may have been more a steady trickle than a deluge, although in some areas manorial records illustrate that English and Welsh settlers, most likely attracted by the possibility of acquiring increased social status, formed an important element of the south-eastern population 5 Literally men of the East 6 Due to the large number of the initial colonists coming from south-west Wales while also being part of a cross-English channel elite, they could therefore be called Cambro-Norman, or even Cambro- Plantaganet or Cambro-Angevin due to the complexities of royal succession in the period, so even Anglo-Cambro-Norman-Angevin would also suffice. Othway-Ruthven However, it would seem that the overall colonial demographic impact island-wide was relatively low Glasscock , This is extremely important when addressing the decline of the colony in Ireland. Clinton ; Stout and McCormick As it stands, the majority seem to date to between c. However, the evidence put forward in papers such as FitzPatrick has shown that they continued in use in some areas far beyond this. Ringforts, along with the souterrain, will be taken as a proxy for Gaelic settlement throughout the project. A number may have been ringfort sites, or were possibly constructed by colonists, or as part of more recent farming activities, and so they are a highly problematic dataset, but one that needs to be given at least some consideration. It is possible to identify Gaelic ecclesiastic activity in the landscape. This also holds for some later cathedral sites, and some churches, as some, but not all of these originated in this pre- period. While there might possibly have been towns in Ireland prior to the Viking period cf. Doherty ; ; ; cf. Valente ; Swift , it would seem as though they were adopted into the Viking settlement pattern right across their zone of influence at roughly the same time. The appearance of cathedrals and churches in Hiberno- Scandinavian towns provides strong indication of the potentially hybrid nature of these settlements. The distribution of so-called Viking Age hoards has not been mapped, as they are more of an indication of interaction between coloniser and colonised rather than of colonial settlement. The ringwork, motte and masonry castle all have their points of origin in the Rhine-Loire region of Europe as part of the process of post-Carolingian feudalisation cf. They were adopted into the hybridised settlement pattern of Scandinavian colonists in northern Francia in the tenth and eleventh centuries, and formed central elements of the Norman colonial package in England Allen Brown ; ; Cathcart King ; Platt ; Pounds Orderic Vitalis thought that it was by their castles that the Normans established themselves in England Platt , 3. They then became part of the colonial package for the Anglo-Norman expansion into Ireland after cf. McNeill ; Sweetman They are found from Ireland in the west to what is now Poland in the east, although they vary in date by region Wilson , In England and the Low Countries they can be found at the centre of nucleated settlements or in dispersed settings from the twelfth century onwards Wilson , In Ireland moated sites largely date to the period after the initial Anglo-Norman incursion in Ireland, possibly representing a secondary movement of settlers cf. Rural nucleated settlement also formed part of the Anglo-Norman colonial package, having not been present in Ireland prior to the invasion. The substantial remains uncovered at sites such as Mullaghmast, Co. Kildare Stephenson would seem to support this. While the appearance of parishes followed the division of the island into a number of territorial dioceses in the twelfth century reform of the Irish church, the process was in its infancy on the arrival of the Anglo-Normans Duffy , 73; Watt , It was in the years after the invasion that the widespread appearance of parishes occurred, usually in tandem with the division of colonial land into manors Duffy , Therefore, medieval parishes and parish churches can be taken as indicators of Anglo-Norman settlement activity, at least in areas held by Anglo- Norman colonists. Continental religious orders, such as the Franciscans, Augustinians, Dominicans, Benedictines, Cistercians, Carmelites, Knights Hospitallers, Fratres Cruciferi, and the Order of Tiron, are associated with the period after the twelfth century reform of the Church in both Ireland and Europe. While some of their arrivals, such as that of the Cistercians, date to before the arrival of the Anglo-Normans, they can be considered as playing a part in the colonial process, as they represent growing outside influence in Ireland. The south-east was the point of entry in the Anglo-Norman period, for both political and geographical reasons, and remained one of the core areas of the colony even after its retraction. The process of colonisation in the mid-west seems to have begun a number of years afterwards due to its geographical location and political figuration. Anglo- Norman colonial activity in both areas saw quite different results, with the south-east traditionally being regarded as having been much more anglicised and the mid-west having seen little more than a century of Anglo-Norman activity. The areas contain a number of historical polities. The southern shore of the Shannon Estuary has also been included in order to gain a more regional perspective, although the focus will largely be on Clare. Waterford, which saw both Scandinavian and Anglo-Norman colonial settlement. The settlement forms associated with colonialism have already been identified and surveyed by the ASI and their classification has largely been retained, although some adjustments have been necessary after consultation with the relevant scholarly literature. Elsewhere, the entire set of pre- churches has been used. Occasionally, sites have also been reclassified in the light of recent scholarship. A scoping analysis was carried out in the early months in order to set the extent of the case-study areas, in order to ensure the feasibility of the project. The spreadsheet contained fields noting the SMR number, townland, county, classification and National Grid coordinates of each site. In addition to this, fields noting the parish, barony, spatially associated monuments and potential classificatory doubt were included where relevant. This was followed by a thorough examination of the existing literature on the relevant monument forms. Once the dataset had been finalised, the relevant shapefile data was downloaded from http: The relevant geographical data was obtained via: Once this phase had been completed it was possible to form distribution maps of the relevant monuments in a number of time-slices in order to examine their distribution pattern and through this the process of colonialism in both the Scandinavian and Anglo-Norman phases. These time-slices are intended to be representative of the expansion, consolidation and domination phases of colonial activity. The relationship between the physical environment and the colonial process has been assessed by superimposing the relevant layers on the same map. Mountains and forest may have provided natural limitations to colonial activity. River systems played an important role in both colonisation and interaction between colonised and non-colonised areas. Areas of obvious colonial activity are interpreted as those with moderate-to- high densities of colonial monuments based, for present purposes, on qualitative examination of the distribution maps. These monuments may be related synchronically or diachronically. That is they may have a contemporary spatial relationship, or they may be related to each other across time, as different phases of related activity. Examples of the former would be the distribution of mottes in a colonial area, or the distribution of mottes and Anglo-Norman medieval parish churches. Almost every distribution naturally has its outliers, and the distributions analysed here are no exception. These can be in the form of single, or very small numbers of, colonial monuments appearing in the midst of areas characterised by Gaelic settlement. These may be due to the adoption by natives of colonial forms via social processes such as acculturation, or they may be indicative of failed attempts at expansion due to the agency of single individuals or families. They may also be part of a larger pattern which remains undetected. These outliers will be discussed in the analysis on a case by case basis where necessary. There may also be areas of mixed distribution that cannot be chronologically separated. This may mean the coexistence in some areas of colonial and native settlement forms, which is highly likely to have been the case in many areas and when dealing with these care has been taken to heed the warning of Jones and not read modern conceptions of identity back into the archaeo-historical record. This decision has not been taken lightly, as techniques such as Monte Carlo simulation Conolly and Lake , can be useful. By doing so, the data may be utilised in future research for such statistical tests, possibly for comparative purposes with another, non-Irish, dataset at PhD level. All Irish language placenames contained in the annalistic references have been translated into their modern English names. Chapter 3. Scandinavian Colonialism in Ireland Figure 3. Wallace a;. Most of these settlements were located in what were originally politically peripheral locations, at least from a Gaelic perspective cf. From a Scandinavian perspective, such locations, with their access to water, were perfect for the expansion and consolidation colonial phases, providing bases of operations for activity further upstream. However, it is difficult to identify a phase of Scandinavian colonial domination in Ireland. Scandinavian settlements became caught up in the centrifugal state formation process of the tenth to twelfth centuries in Ireland and incorporated into Irish socio-political life. That is not to say the colonists became fully acculturated, rather they underwent a mixture of hybridisation and creolisation in what is best termed the Hiberno-Scandinavian settlement phase. The chapter will first turn to the expansion phase for each of the case-studies, before discussing the consolidation and incorporation phases, before finishing with a discussion of the processes of acculturation, creolisation and hybridisation, in addition to further exploring problems of identity and ethnicity. A combination of archaeological and textual evidence is necessary to gain a better understanding of Scandinavian settlement in Ireland, and recourse will be made to textual evidence in order to set the archaeological evidence in context. Mungret and other churches in west Munster were burned the following year CS It is in this context that the longphort pl. Clare must be examined. It is also later used to describe the enclosing wall of a town cf. Maas ; AI Longphort distribution is vital to the understanding of the expansionary phase of Viking colonialism. Beyond the rampart there is an intractable marsh which affords natural protection. Within the enclosure, which is 75m long and 30m wide, there is an oval raised area measuring 20m by It is highly probable that the activity in the lower Shannon region, the activity in and around Loch Ree and the site at Athlunkard are related. Regardless, a deliberate decision is apparent in the placing of a base near a ford close to the tidal range of the Shannon and on a major inland lake close to the confluence of the Shannon and several navigable tributaries. The temporal relationship of Athlunkard to Limerick is difficult to ascertain. There are a number of possibilities. The sites may have existed contemporaneously, or sequentially. It may be that Athlunkard was the original Scandinavian settlement in the region Hodkinson ; cf. If they were contemporary, then a significant element of planning went into Scandinavian expansion in the region. It is evident from figures 3. Athlunkard and the ecclesiastic site at Kilquane are in close association, and were probably contemporary. From the evidence of the maps, it might be tentatively stated that Scandinavian settlement in the mid-west was located in an immediate area containing low secular settlement, but could have been associated with ecclesiastic settlement Figure 3. This was probably a failed raid as opposed to an attempt at colonial activity. The former must have sat at the head of an efficient economic system, as it suffered devastation vastatio on Christmas Eve the following year, with many being carried off, possibly indicating slave raiding CS The Rivers Suir, Nore and Barrow, known as the Three Sisters, enter the sea together, and collectively provide access deep inland. The Slaney, which reaches the sea at Wexford, also provides access inland. It is hardly surprising that the known Scandinavian settlement in the region would be associated with these two inland waterway systems. It is probable that the longphort at Woodstown represents the earliest known Scandinavian settlement in the region. While its ditch and D-shaped enclosure suggest military functions, the site seems to have been a centre of trade and 11 Probably Kilmokea on Great Island, but could be Little Island cf. Charles-Edwards , Woodstown is also in an area of low Gaelic settlement on the periphery of two Gaelic polities, i. While it lies several kilometres upstream on the Suir from the confluence of the three rivers, it would still have provided access to each. As can be seen from figures 3. There may have been a temporal overlap between Woodstown and the settlement at Waterford, but an answer to this question will have to await further excavation at both sites. Scholars remain unsure as to whether or not there was a longphort at Waterford prior to the activity so far uncovered by excavation, and it would most likely have been in the area associated by Hurley with the initial phase of development Hurley , , fig. Even within this maximum possible extent, the argument that Scandinavian settlement avoided areas of high secular settlement holds. The placing of a longphort at the mouth of a major Irish river, the Slaney, would certainly conform to the pattern of longphort placement identified elsewhere in the two case-studies under examination. Wexford and the eastern part of Co. Waterford apparent, where I have been better able to map church sites by period, cf. This can be taken as signifying different perceptions of space in both groups. For the Gaelic Irish, these boundaries served to limit action, whereas for Scandinavians they facilitated action. The location of Scandinavian settlement on the frontiers of Gaelic polities may have eventually been encouraged by the elites of these polities, provided they could come to some form of peaceable arrangement. They could have provided an important buffer zone between rival polities. Limerick is located c. The same may also be possibly said for the Osraige, whose rise to prominence corresponded with Scandinavian settlement in the south-east Downham McCormick claims that the construction of souterrains is a reaction to the commercialisation of slavery , , an intensification which probably coincided with the colonial consolidation phase cf. Holm Souterrains are essentially underground chambers, dating to c. Wales and England are ranked third and fourth, respectively, while Scotland sits in seventh place and France ninth. Only Italy, who some bookmakers gave to 1 odds of winning before the tournament, are considered real outsiders as world No. England ready for tournament. More Videos Six Nations: England ready for tournament .

Prizeman, G. Mapping Social Entrepreneurship in Ireland. Centre for Nonprofit Management, Dublin, Ireland: The Big Picture. The Wheel.

M m domination in ireland

Rehab Group. Ronayne, T. Duggan, and P.

Shaikh Xxxcom Watch Video Wwwwwwww Xxxxxx. In , as part of the policy response to the unemployment crisis of the economic recession, the Irish government commissioned an examination of the job-creation potential of social enterprise. Furthermore, the description and examples of social enterprises included in the report confirmed the dominance of one model of social enterprise in Ireland — the Work Integration Social Enterprise or WISE. The objective of this paper is to discuss how social economy and social enterprise are understood in Ireland and to explain how WISEs have evolved as the dominant Irish social enterprise model to date. It is argued that the adoption by successive Irish governments of a labour market integration approach, to supporting the development of the Irish social economy, since the early s, has shaped the sector and contributed to the emergence of one dominant social enterprise type, the WISE. Some of the characteristics and impacts of Irish WISE are then discussed together with the challenges they face. In Ireland, the term social economy can be traced to the 18thC and the writings of utopian socialists such as Robert Owens, one of the founders of the Irish co-operative movement Bolger The social economy is typically said to include charities, co-operatives, voluntary, mutual associations and non-profits. In this context, in early , the social economy was defined as that part of the economy, between the private and public sectors, which engages in economic activity in order to meet social objectives FAS Social enterprises were identified as one type of enterprise within this part of the economy. The objective of this paper is to discuss how social economy and social enterprise are understood by academics, practitioners and policy makers in Ireland and to explain how WISEs have evolved as the dominant Irish social enterprise model to date. The paper is an analysis of relevant policy documents, academic publications and draws on the few empirical studies that have been published on the sector. Although Ireland has a long and rich tradition of social economy type organisations, they have not been the focus of academic attention as social enterprises. The role of Christian charitable organisations, most notably the Roman Catholic Church in fields of health, education and welfare has been documented see Ruddle and Donoghue ; Powell and Guerin ; Jaffro , but they have received relatively little attention as social enterprises, per se. Since the s the decline in the numbers of religious personnel has led to their gradual withdrawal from these services with the state taking a more proactive role in developing partnerships with the broader voluntary and community, or charity, sector for the purpose of delivering services and tackling social and economic exclusion in Irish society. The social economy has been subjected to increased levels of academic and policy attention since the early s, with a particular focus on the concept of social enterprise. Use of the term social enterprise in Irish academic discourse tends to reflect either US work on the non-profit sector e. These different academic and policy perspectives have contributed to a general ambiguity about what constitutes the social economy and to a variety of approaches to identifying and mapping the sector. In general, academic approaches to identifying and mapping social enterprises can be broadly characterised as either US or European depending on the weight given to individualistic and hierarchical organisational structures, on the one hand, or collectivisation and democratic ownership on the other Teasdale Even though the term social enterprise had been used in public policy discourse from the early s, it did not appear in any academic mapping exercise of the Irish non-profit sector influenced by the US non-profit approach until a philanthropic-sponsored study of the sector was published in Earlier mapping exercises of Irish non-profits e. Concerns were also raised about accountability within, and regulation of, the sector. A mapping exercise in 4 used the International Classification of Non-Profit Organisations and did not refer specifically to social enterprises. Prizeman and Crossan defined social entrepreneurial enterprises as enterprises, businesses or projects that are run to provide products and services which generate social and environmental return , emphasising the change maker or social entrepreneur, social mission and innovation Forty-two per cent of all social entrepreneurial enterprises were involved in the provision of some State service, all enterprises were driven by social mission and had applied some form of innovation to achieve their social agenda. The study demonstrated the highly diverse and multifaceted nature of the Irish social economy and the complex missions, organisational structures, networks and entrepreneurial behaviours that characterised individual Irish social entrepreneurs and social enterprises Prizeman and Crossan These categories were: Work integration social enterprises provide work and labour market integration primarily for people with disabilities in what were conventionally referred to as workshops or sheltered employment. There is a long tradition in Ireland of using voluntary organisations for the provision of services to people with intellectual and physical disability, which dates back to the early s and was formalised in the Health Act. One of the largest Irish organisations in this field is Rehab. Rehab also oversees one of the largest Irish non-governmental employer of people with disabilities, Rehab social enterprises. These enterprises provides integrated employment opportunities to persons with a disability, out of a total jobs, across a range of sectors including: Structured as co-operatives, credit unions provide financial services and have a membership in Ireland of almost three million, representing a greater proportion of the total population than in almost any other country. The number of credit unions has remained relatively stable over the last two decades with very little contraction in the sector due to amalgamations, transfers or liquidations. Local development organisations or community-based service organisations emerged in the s as part of the state response to the persistence of long-term unemployment and disadvantaged communities and gave rise to a new generation of social enterprises in the context of state support for labour market integration. However, this EMES-type approach was not applied to any systematic mapping of the Irish social economy until a European Commission EC sponsored study was undertaken in , as part of a mapping exercise of social enterprise activity and eco-systems in 29 EU countries. The operational definition of social enterprises used for this latter exercise was based on that used in the EC Social Business Initiative EC 9 and closely mirrored the widely accepted EMES definition of social enterprise. Six types of Irish organisations that might be considered as social enterprises were identified. These included: This inclusion reflects the influence of the US social innovation school of thought. The mapping exercise also referred to the interchangeable use of concepts such as social enterprise and social entrepreneurship in Irish discourse, reflecting the general vagueness surrounding the concept in Ireland. Irish academic discourse, and Irish studies of the social economy and social enterprise, reflects what Teasdale By contrast, in Irish policy discourse, conception of the social economy has been more vigorous and less confused, having been strongly influenced, since the early s, by a European policy perspective that promoted the social economy and social enterprise as a community-based strategy to tackle unemployment and social and economic exclusion. The terms social economy and social enterprise first emerged in Irish policy discourse in the s. Reflecting a European policy 10 trend, the initial national policy debate on the sector was influenced by the National Economic Social Forum NESF study of the job potential of the service sector which identified social enterprises as having the potential to provide goods and services to disadvantaged communities in the instance of market and public failure, and to facilitate local labour market integration NESF The NESF suggested that the activities of organisations operating in the social economy have certain distinguishing features: The NESF recommended that government action be taken to develop the social economy by creating support structures for social economy enterprises and providing subsidies to those enterprises that would recruit from the unemployed NESF These recommendations were subsequently supported by advocacy groups for the unemployed. The brief of the working group was to undertake a detailed examination of the potential of the social economy to provide employment and services in disadvantaged communities. The Group defined the social economy as that part of the economy, between the private and public sectors, which engages in economic activity in order to meet social objectives. They identified three types of social enterprises as targets for government support. These were: Community Businesses: The Working Group recommended the establishment of a national social economy programme that would use existing resources wherever possible to support the sector, particularly the existing Community Employment CE programme. These state programmes became the key stimulus and support for the development of Irish social enterprises. The objective of the Social Economy Programme SEP was to support social enterprises with specific characteristics including community ownership, a local development focus, and the provision of work integration opportunities for the long-term unemployed. The SEP was introduced at a time when Ireland was experiencing virtually full employment and attracting significant inward migration to fill the jobs available. Moore, ASI, pers. The benefits of having an outlet for trade operating within their zone of influence may have been apparent to the dynasty. It is more likely then, at least from this evidence, that the site began life as a longphort built to provide a base of operations for the Slaney basin. That said, some form of local consent may have been necessary as the settlement grew, which holds for all of the Scandinavian settlements which developed into Hiberno-Scandinavian towns. This area is also an area characterised by low Gaelic secular settlement, as can be seen from figure 3. It was burned by them in AI It means that Limerick now becomes as much a part of the land orientated local central place hierarchy, being the seat of the regional elite, as well as continuing as a nodal point in the network of Scandinavian settlements connected to each other by water. The appearance of so many round towers in the region from the tenth to twelfth centuries must surely be linked to this. The wealth accrued by controlling Limerick would have filtered through the patronage network of the regional elite, with legitimating institutions such as ecclesiastic sites benefiting greatly, which would have contributed to the ecclesiastic building boom of the period cf. While ostensibly being nodal points in the network of ideological power relations, they were also major economic centres. Their long association with grain production cf. This could have further contributed to the boom in round tower and stone church construction, as well as possibly funding the crafting of portable objects such as manuscripts and metalwork. This is quite a large proportion of the overall island-wide distribution, which stands at approximately 96,18 and it is interesting to note that a similar phenomenon occurs in the greater Dublin area. This may also be the period in which some Irish ecclesiastic sites took on some of the characteristics of towns, due to the opportunities provided by the Scandinavian inspired contraction of space and the continued concentration of power in the hands of patrons. A similar alliance came together to attack Connacht AFM This is significant in that it shows three Hiberno-Scandinavian towns being defeated by a Gaelic group while acting together possibly against a fourth. It may also indicate that Cork had by this point gone the way of Limerick and been incorporated into its local Gaelic polity. Wexford was later plundered by Toirdealbach Ua Conchobuir as part of a raid into the territory of the Laigin, into which it seems to have become incorporated by this point AU Evidence of the town being walled is provided by Giraldus Cambrensis Expugnatio 1. Whether or not it was capable of having the fighting men mentioned by Gerald Expugnatio 1. A number of round towers are located in the south-east case-study region, cf. Creolisation, Acculturation and Hybridisation According to Gosden , colonial activity can change both coloniser and colonised. This can certainly be said to hold true for Scandinavians in Ireland. Material culture seems to have developed in a unique trajectory in the Hiberno- Scandinavian towns, as evinced by the unique style of ornamental items such as armrings Sheehan , , Wallace draws attention to the differences between Hiberno-Scandinavian towns and those in Scandinavia. The use of horizontal log walls in contemporary Baltic and Scandinavian houses illustrates the divergent development of towns there and in Ireland, with differences also apparent in defences and yard layout in the excavations at Oslo, Trondheim and Tonsberg Wallace , Wallace ; ; Hurley Their distribution at present may represent the extent of excavation in each of the towns, rather than their actual distribution. Of these seven, only types 1 and 4 seem to have parallels outside Ireland. Type 1 has been the most common type found so far, and has been uncovered at Dublin, Waterford and Wexford, but not Limerick Wallace , The only known parallels for the type 1 house in Scandinavia are from Kaupang, which was abandoned c. The type also seems to have been in use in non- Scandinavian northern Europe. This can be taken as being an example of conservative creolisation, where colonists adhere to a cultural trait of their homeland long after it has gone out of use there. Wallace notes a number of parallels with York. Anglo-Scandinavian York was located at the confluence of the Ouse and the Foss, the evidence for a defensive embankment uncovered at Hungate is similar in scale to that used at Hiberno-Scandinavian towns, and York also had sunken featured structures Wallace , It should also be noted that Dublin and York were ruled by the same dynasty until the mid-tenth century Wallace , ; Downham , a dynasty which also held Limerick and Waterford until the tenth and eleventh centuries respectively. Mytum wisely questions the level of integration between the two populations, it would seem as though there was little cultural syncretism beyond the towns, and even there the level of hybridity seems to have been low. Some acculturation did occur, probably in both directions, it was never total in the case of Scandinavian settlers. They participated in Irish society, but were not of it, the inhabitants of the towns retained a distinct identity. One example of acculturation may be the adoption of Christianity in the early eleventh century by the colonists. This surely must be taken as a sign of apartedness in the elites of these towns. In fact, in some ways, Scandinavian colonialism helped foster a stronger shared sense of Gaelic identity, by providing a means for definition by contradistinction cf. Binchy b. While a number of loan-words from Old Norse were adopted into Middle Irish over the course of Scandinavian activity in Ireland, the overall number was still comparatively low compared with Manx and Gaelic of Scotland, and limited largely to urban life, military and nautical matters cf. This can be taken as an indicator of low Gaelic acculturation. Bhabha , such as that occupied by the later Anglo-Irish descendents of Anglo-Norman settlers, or by creoles in Latin America. They were culturally different from both their homeland and their adopted land, especially after a number of generations, they were creolised. Gosden ; DeMarrais Identity can be something that is chosen, and it is possible to have multiple identities. Those living in Hiberno-Scandinavian towns may well have adopted dual or even shifting identities. It also implies that the surnames may have been acquired in the bilingual environment through familiar names McEvoy et al , Studies such as these indicate the dangers of assigning biological ethnicity based on material culture. However, it should be borne in mind that they used a sample of 47 men representing 26 surnames associated with Scandinavian ancestry in Ireland. Perhaps at some point in the future a larger study will be done with a more statistically significant sized sample group. Anglo-Norman Colonialism in Ireland 4. Invasion The exact points of entry are known from historical sources, the first was at Bannow, where a force of c. A second lay c. The same is also true for Britain in the years after the Norman Conquest. For many years the established wisdom assigned this role to mottes, but the complexities of motte construction, as shown by Higham and Barker at Hen Domen, has rendered that monument unsuitable for the task of territorial acquisition. Internal buildings would largely have been timber built, although internal stone buildings may possibly have been used on occasion. Their identification in the landscape can be problematic, due to their morphological similarity to ringforts Barry , However, it should be noted that numerous examples of ringforts of this size exist in the archaeological record. The ASI has ringworks listed on its database www. Kildare Fanning , Clonard, Co. Kilkenny, and Ferrycarraig, Co. Wexford Bennett , Meath Sweetman a uncovered evidence for a preceding ringwork. Similar evidence exists for preceding ringworks at similar sites in the case-studies, at Ferns Sweetman Limerick, Wiggins , Kilkenny, Carlow Sweetman, , 6 and Adare, Co. Limerick Barry , 49ff. This, combined with their defensibility, would have made them ideal campaign headquarters and residences for a newly established power. They had already been successfully used in the Norman subjugation of 21 The majority of these are found in Co. Platt , and they would not be used in Ireland for the same purpose. Therefore, they are regarded in this project as being monuments of the expansion phase of the colonial process. Ringworks were built to lay a claim on territory granted to various Anglo-Norman lords involved in the initial activity in Ireland to establish manors, in order to repay their service. In order to provide the necessary incentive, these grants would have had to consist of land favourable to arable agriculture. Their siting represents the centres of the initial settlement, although some may have been replaced with mottes in the consolidation phase. As can be seen from figure 4. They are also in areas of relatively low local Gaelic secular settlement. Whether this is due to the later destruction of Gaelic settlement sites by arable agriculture Barrett and Graham ; cf. Stout or the Anglo-Normans avoidance areas of dense Gaelic settlement is difficult to surmise. Such locations were favourable to pastoral agriculture. The Anglo-Norman economy was based on arable agriculture, to which large low lying areas of the south-east are suitable. This difference helps explain the largely complementary distribution. Ringworks were located at Great Island, at Kilkenny and close to the cathedral site of Ferns. While Kilkenny had not yet acquired cathedral status, it was already an important monastic site, as evinced by its round tower, and it was also possibly the location of some form of high status secular settlement associated with the Osraige Bradley , ; AFM; Song lines It was located at the centre of a small fertile plain in the centre of the modern county, in a series of knolls at a fording point on the River Nore close to where it is joined by the Breagagh Bradley , The strategic location, close to a nodal point in the native Irish network of power relations is significant. It follows a pattern adhered to in all zones of Norman and Anglo-Norman colonialism, and indeed in colonialism in general, cf. Platt ; Colas ; Darwin The location of a ringwork at Ferns is also significant. Controlling the site would have been extremely important for the establishment of colonial hegemony. Another ringwork was located at Great Island, Co. Wexford, c. It was another strategic location, lying close to where the confluence of the Nore and Barrow rivers join the Suir. The ringwork at Castletobin, Co. Kilkenny lies less than 1. The ringwork at Carlow lies close to the junction of the Barrow and a tributary. The location of two ringworks in area of higher Gaelic settlement density in the north-east of the case- study possibly represents an attempt to subdue that area. It can be identified as one of the locations where the wave of Anglo-Norman colonialism broke and began to recede in the fourteenth century. This means that Anglo-Norman colonialism began somewhat later there in the mid-west, which may be the reason for the identification of fewer ringworks there. Figures 4. Ringworks are almost exclusively located in areas of little Gaelic secular settlement. This may be due to the fact that indigenous and colonial communities favoured environments conducive to different agricultural systems, or ringworks being built in areas of lesser threat. The exceptions to this pattern are the Clare sites at Ballyvalley and Ballycarroll, and the ringwork at Carrigafoyle Co. Twohig The choice of this particular site seems to have been both militarily strategic and symbolic. It was located overlooking the first fording point below Loch Derg. It was also quite close to Killaloe and the related site of Cenn Corad, the symbolic caput Ua Briain dynasty prior to their taking residence in Limerick. Killaloe was the both an important ecclesiastical site, at the head of a diocese, and was possibly urbanised cf. Bradley , The reuse of such a site can therefore be taken as a symbolic appropriation of the Ua Briain power. Located on an island at the head of the Shannon estuary, the site could control traffic from the sea to the river system. Like other Hiberno-Scandinavian towns, Limerick was part of a the network of trade routes in north-west Europe, and it probably supported large scale craft production and fishing, as at Dublin cf. Wallace ; AI It was also an ideological centre, including a cathedral, with previous ties to Canterbury, and a clergy to legitimise the hegemony of the new settlers. Politically, it had been the caput of the Ua Briain dynasty, and while they had fallen into relative decline, they continued to sit at the head of a kleptocratic regional taxation and political system. The northernmost possible monument of expansion in the case-study region is at Ballycarroll, Co. If this site was a ringwork, it would represent the maximum extent of penetration into Gaelic territory in the region. The ringwork at Carrigafoyle is in an extremely strategic location on the southern shore of the Shannon estuary in modern Co. It lies in a pocket of localised low density Gaelic secular settlement c. Those in less strategic locations or in areas of low pre- existing settlement, such as the series south of Limerick probably represent the granting of land in areas favourable to arable agriculture. Their morphology is such that it renders them visible in the landscape. They were large mounds of layers of earth and gravel. That they still stand with such steep slopes today in many parts of north-west Europe is a tribute to the engineering of their builders. They would have had substantial defences, usually of timber, with a tower and palisade located at the summit of the mound. In certain instances mottes may have been constructed by the filling in of a previous ringwork Cathcart King , 42 , as the castle was elaborated in a period of post-expansion consolidation. Mottes often had one or more adjacent defended enclosures, known as baileys, usually constructed in the same manner as a ringwork. These may be of various size and shape, depending on the needs and exact function of the motte within the community. From a military perspective, they were strong fortresses suitable for maintaining the positions gained in an expansion phase. Their morphology was such that they were the materialisation of the power of the new regional elite cf. DeMarrais ; Elias , 41ff. They would have been among the largest structures in Ireland at that time, with only ecclesiastic round towers taller than them, and no structures more massive. They also became economic nodes, functioning as manorial centres in the following phase of colonial domination. They are to be found in areas of varying previous settlement density. They avoid some areas of dense Gaelic settlement such the north and west of Co. Kilcummin and Beaufort secure Kingdom domination in Croke Park The two Kerry sides ensured the intermediate and junior titles will both head south Sat, Feb 9, , Beaufort Easkey In the junior decider, Beaufort eased to a record breaking point win over Easkey to ensure a Kerry double of national crowns. More from The Irish Times Rugby. Sponsored Putting the Dyson V11 through its paces. Moving up? Tips to increase the value of your home when selling. Cork becomes focus as first-time buyer's mortgage event heads south. Commenting on The Irish Times has changed. There are also many stylistic differences between these two forms. Irish social dance is a living tradition, and variations in particular dances are found across the country. In some places dances are deliberately modified and new dances are choreographed. Performance dance is traditionally referred to as stepdance. Irish stepdance , popularised by the show Riverdance , is notable for its rapid leg movements, with the body and arms being kept largely stationary. The solo stepdance is generally characterised by a controlled but not rigid upper body, straight arms, and quick, precise movements of the feet. The solo dances can either be in "soft shoe" or "hard shoe". The country instead had an extended period of Iron Age architecture. Christianity introduced simple monastic houses , such as Clonmacnoise , Skellig Michael and Scattery Island. A stylistic similarity has been remarked between these double monasteries and those of the Copts of Egypt. Castles were built by the Anglo-Normans during the late 12th century, such as Dublin Castle and Kilkenny Castle , [] and the concept of the planned walled trading town was introduced, which gained legal status and several rights by grant of a Charter under Feudalism. These charters specifically governed the design of these towns. These episodes of planned settlement account for the majority of present-day towns throughout the country. Gothic cathedrals, such as St Patrick's , were also introduced by the Normans. Beginning with the American designed art deco church at Turner's Cross in , Irish architecture followed the international trend towards modern and sleek building styles since the 20th century. The Royal Institute of the Architects of Ireland regulates the practice of architecture in the state. All these channels are available on Saorview , the national free-to-air digital terrestrial television service. Subscription-based television providers operating in Ireland include Virgin Media and Sky. Supported by the Irish Film Board , the Irish film industry grew significantly since the s, with the promotion of indigenous films as well as the attraction of international productions like Braveheart and Saving Private Ryan. A large number of regional and local radio stations are available countrywide. It also operates four national DAB radio stations. There are two independent national stations: Today FM and Newstalk. Ireland has a traditionally competitive print media, which is divided into daily national newspapers and weekly regional newspapers, as well as national Sunday editions. The strength of the British press is a unique feature of the Irish print media scene, with the availability of a wide selection of British published newspapers and magazines. Irish cuisine was traditionally based on meat and dairy products, supplemented with vegetables and seafood. Examples of popular Irish cuisine include boxty , colcannon , coddle , stew , and bacon and cabbage. Ireland is famous for the full Irish breakfast , which involves a fried or grilled meal generally consisting of rashers, egg, sausage, white and black pudding, and fried tomato. Apart from the influence by European and international dishes, there has been an emergence of a new Irish cuisine based on traditional ingredients handled in new ways. Shellfish have increased in popularity, especially due to the high quality shellfish available from the country's coastline. The most popular fish include salmon and cod. Traditional breads include soda bread and wheaten bread. Barmbrack is a yeasted bread with added sultanas and raisins , traditionally eaten on Halloween. Popular everyday beverages among the Irish include tea and coffee. James's Gate in Dublin. Irish whiskey is also popular throughout the country and comes in various forms, including single malt, single grain, and blended whiskey. Gaelic football and hurling are the traditional sports of Ireland as well as most popular spectator sports. Other Gaelic games organised by the association include Gaelic handball and rounders. Soccer is the third most popular spectator sport and has the highest level of participation. The Irish Rugby Football Union is the governing body of rugby union , which is played at local and international levels on an all-Ireland basis, and has produced players such as Brian O'Driscoll and Ronan O'Gara , who were on the team that won the Grand Slam in The success of the Irish Cricket Team in the Cricket World Cup has led to an increase in the popularity of cricket , which is also administered on an all-Ireland basis by Cricket Ireland. Professional domestic matches are played between the major cricket unions of Leinster , Munster , Northern , and North West. Netball is represented by the Ireland national netball team. Golf is another popular sport in Ireland, with over courses countrywide. Horse Racing has a very large presence in Ireland, with one of the most influential breeding and racing operations based in the country. Racing takes place at courses at The Curragh Racecourse in County Kildare and at Leopardstown Racecourse , racing taking place since the s, but racing taking place as early as the early s. Popular race meetings also take place at Galway. Operations include Coolmore Stud and Ballydoyle , the base of Aidan O'Brien arguably one of the world's most successful horse trainers. Ireland has produced champion horses such as Galileo , Montjeu , and Sea the Stars. Boxing is Ireland's most successful sport at an Olympic level. Administered by the Irish Athletic Boxing Association on an all-Ireland basis, it has gained in popularity as a result of the international success of boxers such as Bernard Dunne , Andy Lee and Katie Taylor. The annual Dublin Marathon and Dublin Women's Mini Marathon are two of the most popular athletics events in the country. Rugby league is represented by the Ireland national rugby league team and administered by Rugby League Ireland who are full member of the Rugby League European Federation on an all-Ireland basis. The profile of Australian rules football has increased in Ireland due to the International rules series that take place annually between Australia and Ireland. Baseball and basketball are also emerging sports in Ireland, both of which have an international team representing the island of Ireland. Other sports which retain a strong following in Ireland include cycling , greyhound racing , horse riding , motorsport , and softball. Ireland ranks fifth in the world in terms of gender equality. The prohibition on divorce in the Constitution was repealed in under the Fifteenth Amendment. Divorce rates in Ireland are very low compared to European Union averages 0. Same-sex marriage in the Republic of Ireland was legalized in with the Thirty-fourth Amendment. Capital punishment is constitutionally banned in Ireland, while discrimination based on age, gender, sexual orientation, marital or familial status, religion, race or membership of the travelling community is illegal. The legislation which outlawed homosexual acts was repealed in Ireland became the first country in the world to introduce an environmental levy for plastic shopping bags in and a public smoking ban in Recycling in Ireland is carried out extensively, and Ireland has the second highest rate of packaging recycling in the European Union. It was the first country in Europe to ban incandescent lightbulbs in and the first EU country to ban in-store tobacco advertising and product display in The state shares many symbols with the island of Ireland. These include the colours green and blue , animals such as the Irish wolfhound and stags , structures such as round towers and celtic crosses , and designs such as Celtic knots and spirals. The shamrock , a type of clover , has been a national symbol of Ireland since the 17th century when it became customary to wear it as a symbol on St. Patrick's Day. These symbols are used by state institutions as well as private bodies in the Republic of Ireland. The flag of Ireland is a tricolour of green, white and orange. The flag originates with the Young Ireland movement of the midth century but was not popularised until its use during the Easter Rising of A naval jack , a green flag with a yellow harp, is set out in Defence Forces Regulations and flown from the bows of warships in addition to the national flag in limited circumstances e. It is based on the unofficial green ensign of Ireland used in the 18th and 19th centuries and the traditional green flag of Ireland dating from the 16th century. A Soldier's Song , has its roots in the Easter Rising, when the song was sung by the rebels. Although originally published in English in , [] the song was translated into Irish in and the Irish-language version is more commonly sung today. The arms of Ireland originate as the arms of the monarchs of Ireland and was recorded as the arms of the King of Ireland in the 12th century. From the union of the crowns of England , Scotland and Ireland in , they have appeared quartered on the royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom. Today, they are the personal arms of the President of Ireland whilst he or she is in office and are flown as the presidential standard. The harp symbol is used extensively by the state to mark official documents, Irish coinage and on the seal of the President of Ireland. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the sovereign state. For other uses, see Ireland disambiguation. Ireland [a]. Coat of arms. Irish English [1]. National language. Main article: Names of the Irish state. History of the Republic of Ireland. For the history of the entire island, see History of Ireland. Home Rule movement. Geography of Ireland. Climate of Ireland. Politics of the Republic of Ireland. Local government in the Republic of Ireland. Main articles: Foreign relations of the Republic of Ireland. See also: Ireland—NATO relations. Defence Forces Ireland. Economy of the Republic of Ireland. Corporation tax in the Republic of Ireland. Energy in Ireland. Demographics of the Republic of Ireland. Irish population analysis. List of urban areas in the Republic of Ireland by population. Healthcare in the Republic of Ireland. Education in the Republic of Ireland. Religion in the Republic of Ireland. Defending champions Ireland will try and recapture their magic against Scotland on February 9 away at Murrayfield. Vunipola right celebrates England's Six Nations victory over Scotland in , when the team also won the grand slam. It was Scotland's sixth win in a row over Italy in all competitions. The Italians did have one thing to celebrate -- a record 66th Six Nations appearance for captain Sergio Parisse, who broke the record held by Ireland's Brian O'Driscoll. The year-old, who also holds the unenviable record of losing Test matches, would have preferred an elusive win over the record. We gave Scotland a lot of possession. Forty-three of the head-to-head penalty counts have also been won against their opposition. They have Aussie Nic Berry, an official they have never encountered before, in charge versus Argentina followed by the appointment of Wayne Barnes, the more familiar English referee, for the series highlight against New Zealand. Ireland full-back Jordan Larmour Getty Images. They were also card free. In sharp contrast, the All Blacks and the Wallabies were penalised 39 times in those games, a penalty every six minutes, and they also suffered five yellow cards..

Ruddle, Helen, and Freda Donoghue. The Organisation of Volunteering. Policy Research Centre. Salamon, L. Manchester University Press. Sexton, J. Labour Market Studies: Spear, R. A Descriptive Analysis. Teasdale, S. Making Sense of Social Enterprise M m domination in ireland. Social Enterprises and the Social Economy.

Evaluation M m domination in ireland the Social Economy Programme. It was subsumed into the government Department of Jobs, Enterprise and Innovation in EMES is an international research network, established inwhose goal is to build a European body of theoretical and empirical knowledge of social enterprise and other third sector issues.

There is no real consensus about the size of the sector or its likely parameters. Social enterprises are not included in official statistics and estimates vary greatly and can be easily contested. Prizeman and Crossan EMES is an international research network, established in with a focus on social enterprises. In the charity was M m domination in ireland subject of a number of an investigations regarding salaries for senior staff and the unsanctioned use of government funds for administrative and transport costs.

Hote Lesbain Watch Video Indonesia 3xxx. Luke McGrath knows Leinster's best needed to thwart Toulouse Crossword Get access to over 6, interactive crosswords. Our Writers. Matt Williams Matt Williams: John O'Sullivan Munster eager to halt dismal run of six semi-final defeats. Camogie crying out for positive change. The rebirth of French attacking flair is happening before our eyes. Their record lowest penalty count was two conceded against Italy in the Six Nations. There was just three in games versus Australia and Italy twice after Saturday , four against New Zealand twice and Wales also twice and tallies of five against New Zealand, Australia and England. Between August and February they were beaten on the penalty count in seven of a dozen matches. Their penalty count was also in double digits on eight of those occasions and there were three yellow cards, bad habits which contributed to a dissatisfactory World Cup elimination and the premature surrender of a Six Nations title they were seeking to win for an historic third time in succession. It was a downturn in fortunes they never want to repeat. Captain Brad Green, who made a nuisance of himself and not in a good way — by pulling down opponents after the ball had gone — again was their top scorer, with 10 but four of those were behinds which he would have hoped might have been better directed. He got immense support from further back where defender James Kelly was a worthy winner of the Jim Stynes medal for best AFL player and again got on to a stack of ball with only Cluxton handling more possession throughout the series. A well constructed move in the 32nd minute involving Michael Murphy and McDonnell, who put Leighton Glynn in the clear meant that even the sub-plot of the second Test was now a foregone conclusion once the Wicklow man slotted his second goal of the series. At half-time the lead was Murphy, whose aggression in the tackle combined effectively with his great finishing talent, scored seven on the night but was yellow carded for rough play in the 34th minute — a risk his physically confrontational style was at times running. With Australia forcing hardly any activity on the scoreboard operators, Ireland simply had to keep their own total rising, with Tommy Walsh glad to oblige. Their distribution at present may represent the extent of excavation in each of the towns, rather than their actual distribution. Of these seven, only types 1 and 4 seem to have parallels outside Ireland. Type 1 has been the most common type found so far, and has been uncovered at Dublin, Waterford and Wexford, but not Limerick Wallace , The only known parallels for the type 1 house in Scandinavia are from Kaupang, which was abandoned c. The type also seems to have been in use in non- Scandinavian northern Europe. This can be taken as being an example of conservative creolisation, where colonists adhere to a cultural trait of their homeland long after it has gone out of use there. Wallace notes a number of parallels with York. Anglo-Scandinavian York was located at the confluence of the Ouse and the Foss, the evidence for a defensive embankment uncovered at Hungate is similar in scale to that used at Hiberno-Scandinavian towns, and York also had sunken featured structures Wallace , It should also be noted that Dublin and York were ruled by the same dynasty until the mid-tenth century Wallace , ; Downham , a dynasty which also held Limerick and Waterford until the tenth and eleventh centuries respectively. Mytum wisely questions the level of integration between the two populations, it would seem as though there was little cultural syncretism beyond the towns, and even there the level of hybridity seems to have been low. Some acculturation did occur, probably in both directions, it was never total in the case of Scandinavian settlers. They participated in Irish society, but were not of it, the inhabitants of the towns retained a distinct identity. One example of acculturation may be the adoption of Christianity in the early eleventh century by the colonists. This surely must be taken as a sign of apartedness in the elites of these towns. In fact, in some ways, Scandinavian colonialism helped foster a stronger shared sense of Gaelic identity, by providing a means for definition by contradistinction cf. Binchy b. While a number of loan-words from Old Norse were adopted into Middle Irish over the course of Scandinavian activity in Ireland, the overall number was still comparatively low compared with Manx and Gaelic of Scotland, and limited largely to urban life, military and nautical matters cf. This can be taken as an indicator of low Gaelic acculturation. Bhabha , such as that occupied by the later Anglo-Irish descendents of Anglo-Norman settlers, or by creoles in Latin America. They were culturally different from both their homeland and their adopted land, especially after a number of generations, they were creolised. Gosden ; DeMarrais Identity can be something that is chosen, and it is possible to have multiple identities. Those living in Hiberno-Scandinavian towns may well have adopted dual or even shifting identities. It also implies that the surnames may have been acquired in the bilingual environment through familiar names McEvoy et al , Studies such as these indicate the dangers of assigning biological ethnicity based on material culture. However, it should be borne in mind that they used a sample of 47 men representing 26 surnames associated with Scandinavian ancestry in Ireland. Perhaps at some point in the future a larger study will be done with a more statistically significant sized sample group. Anglo-Norman Colonialism in Ireland 4. Invasion The exact points of entry are known from historical sources, the first was at Bannow, where a force of c. A second lay c. The same is also true for Britain in the years after the Norman Conquest. For many years the established wisdom assigned this role to mottes, but the complexities of motte construction, as shown by Higham and Barker at Hen Domen, has rendered that monument unsuitable for the task of territorial acquisition. Internal buildings would largely have been timber built, although internal stone buildings may possibly have been used on occasion. Their identification in the landscape can be problematic, due to their morphological similarity to ringforts Barry , However, it should be noted that numerous examples of ringforts of this size exist in the archaeological record. The ASI has ringworks listed on its database www. Kildare Fanning , Clonard, Co. Kilkenny, and Ferrycarraig, Co. Wexford Bennett , Meath Sweetman a uncovered evidence for a preceding ringwork. Similar evidence exists for preceding ringworks at similar sites in the case-studies, at Ferns Sweetman Limerick, Wiggins , Kilkenny, Carlow Sweetman, , 6 and Adare, Co. Limerick Barry , 49ff. This, combined with their defensibility, would have made them ideal campaign headquarters and residences for a newly established power. They had already been successfully used in the Norman subjugation of 21 The majority of these are found in Co. Platt , and they would not be used in Ireland for the same purpose. Therefore, they are regarded in this project as being monuments of the expansion phase of the colonial process. Ringworks were built to lay a claim on territory granted to various Anglo-Norman lords involved in the initial activity in Ireland to establish manors, in order to repay their service. In order to provide the necessary incentive, these grants would have had to consist of land favourable to arable agriculture. Their siting represents the centres of the initial settlement, although some may have been replaced with mottes in the consolidation phase. As can be seen from figure 4. They are also in areas of relatively low local Gaelic secular settlement. Whether this is due to the later destruction of Gaelic settlement sites by arable agriculture Barrett and Graham ; cf. Stout or the Anglo-Normans avoidance areas of dense Gaelic settlement is difficult to surmise. Such locations were favourable to pastoral agriculture. The Anglo-Norman economy was based on arable agriculture, to which large low lying areas of the south-east are suitable. This difference helps explain the largely complementary distribution. Ringworks were located at Great Island, at Kilkenny and close to the cathedral site of Ferns. While Kilkenny had not yet acquired cathedral status, it was already an important monastic site, as evinced by its round tower, and it was also possibly the location of some form of high status secular settlement associated with the Osraige Bradley , ; AFM; Song lines It was located at the centre of a small fertile plain in the centre of the modern county, in a series of knolls at a fording point on the River Nore close to where it is joined by the Breagagh Bradley , The strategic location, close to a nodal point in the native Irish network of power relations is significant. It follows a pattern adhered to in all zones of Norman and Anglo-Norman colonialism, and indeed in colonialism in general, cf. Platt ; Colas ; Darwin The location of a ringwork at Ferns is also significant. Controlling the site would have been extremely important for the establishment of colonial hegemony. Another ringwork was located at Great Island, Co. Wexford, c. It was another strategic location, lying close to where the confluence of the Nore and Barrow rivers join the Suir. The ringwork at Castletobin, Co. Kilkenny lies less than 1. The ringwork at Carlow lies close to the junction of the Barrow and a tributary. The location of two ringworks in area of higher Gaelic settlement density in the north-east of the case- study possibly represents an attempt to subdue that area. It can be identified as one of the locations where the wave of Anglo-Norman colonialism broke and began to recede in the fourteenth century. This means that Anglo-Norman colonialism began somewhat later there in the mid-west, which may be the reason for the identification of fewer ringworks there. Figures 4. Ringworks are almost exclusively located in areas of little Gaelic secular settlement. This may be due to the fact that indigenous and colonial communities favoured environments conducive to different agricultural systems, or ringworks being built in areas of lesser threat. The exceptions to this pattern are the Clare sites at Ballyvalley and Ballycarroll, and the ringwork at Carrigafoyle Co. Twohig The choice of this particular site seems to have been both militarily strategic and symbolic. It was located overlooking the first fording point below Loch Derg. It was also quite close to Killaloe and the related site of Cenn Corad, the symbolic caput Ua Briain dynasty prior to their taking residence in Limerick. Killaloe was the both an important ecclesiastical site, at the head of a diocese, and was possibly urbanised cf. Bradley , The reuse of such a site can therefore be taken as a symbolic appropriation of the Ua Briain power. Located on an island at the head of the Shannon estuary, the site could control traffic from the sea to the river system. Like other Hiberno-Scandinavian towns, Limerick was part of a the network of trade routes in north-west Europe, and it probably supported large scale craft production and fishing, as at Dublin cf. Wallace ; AI It was also an ideological centre, including a cathedral, with previous ties to Canterbury, and a clergy to legitimise the hegemony of the new settlers. Politically, it had been the caput of the Ua Briain dynasty, and while they had fallen into relative decline, they continued to sit at the head of a kleptocratic regional taxation and political system. The northernmost possible monument of expansion in the case-study region is at Ballycarroll, Co. If this site was a ringwork, it would represent the maximum extent of penetration into Gaelic territory in the region. The ringwork at Carrigafoyle is in an extremely strategic location on the southern shore of the Shannon estuary in modern Co. It lies in a pocket of localised low density Gaelic secular settlement c. Those in less strategic locations or in areas of low pre- existing settlement, such as the series south of Limerick probably represent the granting of land in areas favourable to arable agriculture. Their morphology is such that it renders them visible in the landscape. They were large mounds of layers of earth and gravel. That they still stand with such steep slopes today in many parts of north-west Europe is a tribute to the engineering of their builders. They would have had substantial defences, usually of timber, with a tower and palisade located at the summit of the mound. In certain instances mottes may have been constructed by the filling in of a previous ringwork Cathcart King , 42 , as the castle was elaborated in a period of post-expansion consolidation. Mottes often had one or more adjacent defended enclosures, known as baileys, usually constructed in the same manner as a ringwork. These may be of various size and shape, depending on the needs and exact function of the motte within the community. From a military perspective, they were strong fortresses suitable for maintaining the positions gained in an expansion phase. Their morphology was such that they were the materialisation of the power of the new regional elite cf. DeMarrais ; Elias , 41ff. They would have been among the largest structures in Ireland at that time, with only ecclesiastic round towers taller than them, and no structures more massive. They also became economic nodes, functioning as manorial centres in the following phase of colonial domination. They are to be found in areas of varying previous settlement density. They avoid some areas of dense Gaelic settlement such the north and west of Co. Wexford, possibly indicating continuity of Gaelic settlement patterns and a low colonial impact in these areas cf. Barrett and Graham There was an avoidance of high elevations, although mottes are found in river valleys in areas of upland. The latter site is arguably in a more strategic location, close to the confluence of the Slaney and a tributary. In Co. Kilkenny, the motte and bailey at Westcourt Demesne and the ringwork at Castletobin possibly share a similar association, lying 1. This may be taken as indicating church collusion. In north Co. The year-old, who also holds the unenviable record of losing Test matches, would have preferred an elusive win over the record. We gave Scotland a lot of possession. It's good to defend, but you can't defend all the time. Wales defeated France in the tournament's opening match held in Paris Friday night. George North scored two tries while Gareth Anscombe notched two conversions. Long Fellow, Long Shadow. Archived from the original on 21 July Irish Statute Book. Garvin, Dublin, Peter Cottrell The Irish Civil War — Osprey Publishing. Darius Whelan June Retrieved 11 September John T. Koch, Celtic culture: Santa Barbara, January Journal of British Studies. After the enactment of the External Relations Act and the Constitution, Ireland's only remaining link with the crown had been the accreditation of diplomats. The president of Ireland was the head of state. When opposition deputies asked de Valera whether Ireland was a republic—a favorite pastime in the mids—he tended to resort to dictionary definitions showing that Ireland had all the attributes of a republic. The Emergency: Neutral Ireland — Statutory Instrument of the Government of Ireland. Retrieved 12 November Trinity Economic Papers Series. Trinity College, Dublin. Retrieved 17 June Cm Report. HM Government. February Tree Council of Ireland. Archived from the original on 11 January Retrieved 15 June Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine. Retrieved 29 January How can this be increased? The Irish Times , 6 July The Irish Times , 19 June Archived from the original on 4 October Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved 30 July CIA World Factbook. Retrieved 28 August Retrieved 22 October Archived from the original on 22 January Retrieved 22 January Retrieved 4 January Irish Independent. Retrieved 11 November Irish political studies reader: Retrieved 15 March Act of the Irish Parliament. Archived from the original PDF on 2 June Retrieved 2 June Retrieved 20 November Archived from the original on 6 June Geary, An Inconvenient Wait: Archived from the original on 14 April Retrieved 15 July Royal Irish Academy. Retrieved 10 October Motion Resumed ". Archived from the original on 11 May The Irish Times. Retrieved 6 May NATO website. Irish Times. Office of the Houses of the Oireachtas Hansard. Department of Defense. Retrieved 26 August Office of the Federal Register Weekly compilation of Presidential documents, Volume 32, Issue 2. Retrieved 21 August RTE News. Revenue Commissioners. April IDA Ireland. March Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 30 June Retrieved 30 May Financial Times. Retrieved 30 July — via The Guardian. Retrieved 2 February Irish Fiscal Advisory Council. June Bloomberg News. Finance Dublin. Ernst and Young. Department of Finance. Central Statistics Office. Central Statistics Office Ireland. IMK Institute, Berlin. Archived from the original on 24 June Irish Examiner. December Publications Office, Luxembourg: Government Of Ireland, Dublin, Ireland. European Commission. European Commission Publication. Country Report — Ireland. Fahey, T. Social Housing in Ireland: Favreau, L. Favreau, and J. Review of Labour Market Programmes. Social Economy Framework Document. Government of Ireland. National Housing Policy Statement. Department of Environment, Community and Local Government. Action Plan for Jobs Government Publications. Harvey, B. Downsizing the Community Sector: Irish Congress of Trade Union. Hynes, B. Jaffro, G. Kerlin, J. Understanding and Learning From the Differences. Leigh-Doyle, S. Lyon, F. Teasdale, and R. The Case of the UK. McGuiness, S. Kelly, and J. Mendell, M. National, Economic and Social Council. The Evidence and Its Implications. National Economic and Social Forum. Nicholls, A. Social Entrepreneurship. New Models of Sustainable Social Change. New York: Oxford University Press. Nyssens, M. Defourny, L. Gardin, and Jean-Louis Laville. Local Partnership for Better Governance. OECD Publishing. Employment Outlook. Local Job Creation: Borzaga and J. Nyssens, Chapter 8, pp. Social Enterprise in Rural Communities..

Bya new CEO was in place and the Irish Government had put in place a Charities Regulator was in place to provide oversight for the entire Irish charity sector.

The Irish Council for Social Housing note that since non-profit housing associations, have been earmarked by Government for an enhanced M m domination in ireland in the supply of new social housing.

The core criteria of the EC definition suggest M m domination in ireland the organisation must: Successive Irish governments have typically used community-based employment schemes as a response to employment support for the unemployed and indirectly funding the work of the community and voluntary sector in the provision of social and related services Leigh-Doyle ; Harvey There is a notable link between periods of national unemployment and statutory discourse on social enterprises e.

Community Employment was established by the Irish government in the s. It is an active labour market programme ALMP that supports community-based projects. The aim of CE is to enhance the M m domination in ireland and mobility of disadvantaged and unemployed persons by providing work experience and training opportunities in their communities. Government contracts for public service delivery include: The Forfas typology is based M m domination in ireland objectives and activities rather than organizational form as there is no legal identify for social enterprises in Ireland.

Rather a social enterprise is typically legally incorporated as a Company Limited M m domination in ireland Guarantee CLG with charitable status, and will have a board of voluntary directors. Consequently, there is practically no diversity in organisational form within the sector. Whilst the EU definition calls for independence the national operational definition refers to the need to be separate from the state.

This could be argued to mean the same thing however the difference in language is used as a basis, in the report, for suggesting this slight difference between the two operational definitions.

For more see: Social Entrepreneurs Ireland supports social entrepreneurs who can come up with innovative solutions to social problems. In the Irish Government published Putting People Firsta major programme for fundamental reform of local government.

Survey of Irish charities undertaken in by The Wheel organisation. By the Irish government had enacted the Charities Act and appointed a Charities Regulator to implement new codes of practice, governance and ensure a full publication of all the financial expenditures of the sector. Granny and cock

Hote sexx Watch Video Weibertausch Porno. A Descriptive Analysis. Teasdale, S. Making Sense of Social Enterprise Discourses. Social Enterprises and the Social Economy. Evaluation of the Social Economy Programme. It was subsumed into the government Department of Jobs, Enterprise and Innovation in EMES is an international research network, established in , whose goal is to build a European body of theoretical and empirical knowledge of social enterprise and other third sector issues. There is no real consensus about the size of the sector or its likely parameters. Social enterprises are not included in official statistics and estimates vary greatly and can be easily contested. Prizeman and Crossan EMES is an international research network, established in with a focus on social enterprises. In the charity was the subject of a number of an investigations regarding salaries for senior staff and the unsanctioned use of government funds for administrative and transport costs. By , a new CEO was in place and the Irish Government had put in place a Charities Regulator was in place to provide oversight for the entire Irish charity sector. The Irish Council for Social Housing note that since non-profit housing associations, have been earmarked by Government for an enhanced role in the supply of new social housing. The core criteria of the EC definition suggest that the organisation must: Successive Irish governments have typically used community-based employment schemes as a response to employment support for the unemployed and indirectly funding the work of the community and voluntary sector in the provision of social and related services Leigh-Doyle ; Harvey There is a notable link between periods of national unemployment and statutory discourse on social enterprises e. Community Employment was established by the Irish government in the s. It is an active labour market programme ALMP that supports community-based projects. The aim of CE is to enhance the employability and mobility of disadvantaged and unemployed persons by providing work experience and training opportunities in their communities. Government contracts for public service delivery include: The Forfas typology is based on objectives and activities rather than organizational form as there is no legal identify for social enterprises in Ireland. Rather a social enterprise is typically legally incorporated as a Company Limited by Guarantee CLG with charitable status, and will have a board of voluntary directors. Consequently, there is practically no diversity in organisational form within the sector. Whilst the EU definition calls for independence the national operational definition refers to the need to be separate from the state. This could be argued to mean the same thing however the difference in language is used as a basis, in the report, for suggesting this slight difference between the two operational definitions. For more see: Social Entrepreneurs Ireland supports social entrepreneurs who can come up with innovative solutions to social problems. In the Irish Government published Putting People First , a major programme for fundamental reform of local government. Survey of Irish charities undertaken in by The Wheel organisation. By the Irish government had enacted the Charities Act and appointed a Charities Regulator to implement new codes of practice, governance and ensure a full publication of all the financial expenditures of the sector. Export Citation. Here you can find all Crossref-listed publications in which this article is cited. User Account Log in Register Help. Search Close. Advanced Search Help. Show Summary Details. More options …. Nonprofit Policy Forum. Young, Dennis R. Open Access. Online ISSN See all formats and pricing Online. Prices are subject to change without notice. Prices do not include postage and handling if applicable. Recommended Retail Price. Should Blockers Be Blocked? When Good Intentions Go Wrong: Policy Brief: Advocacy under Xi: Nonprofit Sector: Volume 8 Issue 4 Dec , pp. Volume 7 Issue 4 Dec , pp. Volume 6 Issue 3 Nov , pp. Volume 5 Issue 2 Oct , pp. Volume 4 Issue 1 Aug , pp. Volume 3 Issue 2 Sep Issue 1 Jan Volume 2 Issue 2 Nov Issue 1 May Volume 1 Issue 1 Oct Previous Article. Next Article. Or Merely Engage in Defensive Efforts? Other articles by this author: De Gruyter Online Google Scholar. Published Online: Abstract What is termed the social economy in Ireland includes charities, co-operatives, voluntary associations and non-profits. Introduction In Ireland, the term social economy can be traced to the 18thC and the writings of utopian socialists such as Robert Owens, one of the founders of the Irish co-operative movement Bolger Towards an Understanding of Social Enterprise in Irish Academic and Policy Discourse Although Ireland has a long and rich tradition of social economy type organisations, they have not been the focus of academic attention as social enterprises. Between August and February they were beaten on the penalty count in seven of a dozen matches. Their penalty count was also in double digits on eight of those occasions and there were three yellow cards, bad habits which contributed to a dissatisfactory World Cup elimination and the premature surrender of a Six Nations title they were seeking to win for an historic third time in succession. It was a downturn in fortunes they never want to repeat. The lowest we have had is two penalties against us in a game and we have had some double figures that we are not happy with. Painting the right picture for the officials at the breakdown is an imperative. Therefore, they have got to do a lap around the pitch and when they get back they will be tired. What good behaviour does for Ireland is help level the playing field. Latest Sport. AIL clubs are in an unsustainable mess Emotional Rory Best happy to leave rugby on his terms Light winds in Genoa leave Annalise Murphy chasing the pack Formidable Toulouse on the crest of a wave as Leinster await Luke McGrath knows Leinster's best needed to thwart Toulouse Sign In. Don't have an account? Forgot Password? Within the enclosure, which is 75m long and 30m wide, there is an oval raised area measuring 20m by It is highly probable that the activity in the lower Shannon region, the activity in and around Loch Ree and the site at Athlunkard are related. Regardless, a deliberate decision is apparent in the placing of a base near a ford close to the tidal range of the Shannon and on a major inland lake close to the confluence of the Shannon and several navigable tributaries. The temporal relationship of Athlunkard to Limerick is difficult to ascertain. There are a number of possibilities. The sites may have existed contemporaneously, or sequentially. It may be that Athlunkard was the original Scandinavian settlement in the region Hodkinson ; cf. If they were contemporary, then a significant element of planning went into Scandinavian expansion in the region. It is evident from figures 3. Athlunkard and the ecclesiastic site at Kilquane are in close association, and were probably contemporary. From the evidence of the maps, it might be tentatively stated that Scandinavian settlement in the mid-west was located in an immediate area containing low secular settlement, but could have been associated with ecclesiastic settlement Figure 3. This was probably a failed raid as opposed to an attempt at colonial activity. The former must have sat at the head of an efficient economic system, as it suffered devastation vastatio on Christmas Eve the following year, with many being carried off, possibly indicating slave raiding CS The Rivers Suir, Nore and Barrow, known as the Three Sisters, enter the sea together, and collectively provide access deep inland. The Slaney, which reaches the sea at Wexford, also provides access inland. It is hardly surprising that the known Scandinavian settlement in the region would be associated with these two inland waterway systems. It is probable that the longphort at Woodstown represents the earliest known Scandinavian settlement in the region. While its ditch and D-shaped enclosure suggest military functions, the site seems to have been a centre of trade and 11 Probably Kilmokea on Great Island, but could be Little Island cf. Charles-Edwards , Woodstown is also in an area of low Gaelic settlement on the periphery of two Gaelic polities, i. While it lies several kilometres upstream on the Suir from the confluence of the three rivers, it would still have provided access to each. As can be seen from figures 3. There may have been a temporal overlap between Woodstown and the settlement at Waterford, but an answer to this question will have to await further excavation at both sites. Scholars remain unsure as to whether or not there was a longphort at Waterford prior to the activity so far uncovered by excavation, and it would most likely have been in the area associated by Hurley with the initial phase of development Hurley , , fig. Even within this maximum possible extent, the argument that Scandinavian settlement avoided areas of high secular settlement holds. The placing of a longphort at the mouth of a major Irish river, the Slaney, would certainly conform to the pattern of longphort placement identified elsewhere in the two case-studies under examination. Wexford and the eastern part of Co. Waterford apparent, where I have been better able to map church sites by period, cf. This can be taken as signifying different perceptions of space in both groups. For the Gaelic Irish, these boundaries served to limit action, whereas for Scandinavians they facilitated action. The location of Scandinavian settlement on the frontiers of Gaelic polities may have eventually been encouraged by the elites of these polities, provided they could come to some form of peaceable arrangement. They could have provided an important buffer zone between rival polities. Limerick is located c. The same may also be possibly said for the Osraige, whose rise to prominence corresponded with Scandinavian settlement in the south-east Downham McCormick claims that the construction of souterrains is a reaction to the commercialisation of slavery , , an intensification which probably coincided with the colonial consolidation phase cf. Holm Souterrains are essentially underground chambers, dating to c. However, a number of souterrains also have ramp or stepped entrances, which would seem to imply ease of access and thus a storage function Clinton , 60 , possibly for the both pastoral and arable agricultural surplus Stout Any direct connections to Scandinavian activity are tenuous. Their distributions are uneven, and their only discernable relationship to the pattern of Scandinavian settlement is that it occurs in areas associated with low local souterrain density, as can be seen from figures 3. They probably were related more to the commercialisation of agriculture than of slavery, although they may have occasionally functioned as shelters from such raids. While hinterlands seem to have developed around them, they were not part of a colonial central place hierarchy of domination like their later Anglo-Norman counterparts, and the third phase of Scandinavian colonialism in Ireland was rather one of incorporation, as will later be discussed. Surprisingly little is know about the genesis and early years of the Hiberno- Scandinavian towns in Ireland. Each may have been preceded by a longphort, as was most likely the case in Dublin. The location of the settlement on a river island parallels the siting of Cork cf. Wallace , ; Wallace ; Hurley This may well have been part of the wall referred to by Giraldus Cambrensis Expugnatio 2. While acknowledging the existence of several ninth century references to Limerick, Wallace asserts that Limerick appears to have been founded in , It seems to have been a base of operations for extensive raiding on the Shannon system in this period AI However, this seems quite late in the chronology of expansion, and earlier references exist, such as that of mentioned earlier. It is mentioned again in as being the base of operations of a Norse Jarl Tomrar FA ,16 who died later the same year on the Isle of Man FA , FA ,17 an indication of the mobility of these individuals. The houses have parallels possible at Dublin and York. Whether this took place at Limerick or somewhere else in difficult to surmise. The conflicts with Scandinavians from Dublin AU This surely infers some form of connection between the two groups. While the evidence is strongest for that of Dublin cf. Bradley ; , Limerick also must have had some form of hinterland, which may correspond to the twelfth century diocese of Limerick, or to its medieval deanery, or to the Cantred of the Ostmen of Limerick of the Anglo-Norman period Bradley , The most likely area for that earlier hinterland is probably the area relatively empty of Gaelic settlement visible in figure 3. While such an alliance would have been mutually beneficial, especially militarily, it would also have provided the Gaelic elite with a major economic power source, due to the commercial nature of Scandinavian settlement. The nature of the archaeological evidence as it stands means that very little is known about early Waterford, with the vast majority of evidence being from the early eleventh century onwards Wallace , ; Hurley That this was a foundation event is difficult to surmise. The arrival of the ships might indicate an intention to urbanise an existing settlement, or the beginning of a relocation from Woodstown to Waterford. The site may have been intended to rival Woodstown. He also draws attention to the possibility that further research at Woodstown might provide a better perspective on both sites. The marshy ground around the tributary would have provided added protection, as at Woodstown and Athlunkard. Four phases of development of the Hiberno-Scandinavian town have been identified, moving progressively westward between the river and its tributary Hurley , , fig. A section of bank c. This bank was demolished in the second quarter of the twelfth century, and a wall built on its back-filled ditch Wallace , Also similar to Dublin were a series of vertical joints indicating that the wall was built in sections, possibly be different work gangs Wallace , ; Hurley et al This can be taken as evidence for central planning by an authority able to organise work gangs, and although this evidence is largely from the incorporation phase, such centrality may have been a feature of the consolidation phase. The similarity between the defences of the Scandinavian towns can be taken as indicative of a shared concept of defensive technology, and thus a shared culture. The possible hinterland for Waterford most likely corresponds to the area of low settlement density around it evident from figure 3. Wexford, Loch Garman in Irish, was also built at the confluence of an estuary and tributary, the Slaney and Abbey River respectively Wallace , ; , The excavations at Bride Street yielded a building sequence from c. Few documentary references to the settlement are extant, and the earliest mentions the foreigners of Wexford as having lost a battle, along with those of Waterford AFM As can be seen from figure 3. It is more like Cork and Dublin in this respect. At least three major forests are known as having been in the area in the Anglo-Norman period, and it is highly likely that they were even more extensive earlier cf. Colfer , 68, Roche , One of these, the Forest of Taghmon, surely accounts for the large gap in the settlement pattern apparent in southern Wexford in figures 3. Moore, ASI, pers. The benefits of having an outlet for trade operating within their zone of influence may have been apparent to the dynasty. It is more likely then, at least from this evidence, that the site began life as a longphort built to provide a base of operations for the Slaney basin. That said, some form of local consent may have been necessary as the settlement grew, which holds for all of the Scandinavian settlements which developed into Hiberno-Scandinavian towns. This area is also an area characterised by low Gaelic secular settlement, as can be seen from figure 3. It was burned by them in AI It means that Limerick now becomes as much a part of the land orientated local central place hierarchy, being the seat of the regional elite, as well as continuing as a nodal point in the network of Scandinavian settlements connected to each other by water. The appearance of so many round towers in the region from the tenth to twelfth centuries must surely be linked to this. The wealth accrued by controlling Limerick would have filtered through the patronage network of the regional elite, with legitimating institutions such as ecclesiastic sites benefiting greatly, which would have contributed to the ecclesiastic building boom of the period cf. While ostensibly being nodal points in the network of ideological power relations, they were also major economic centres. Their long association with grain production cf. This could have further contributed to the boom in round tower and stone church construction, as well as possibly funding the crafting of portable objects such as manuscripts and metalwork. This is quite a large proportion of the overall island-wide distribution, which stands at approximately 96,18 and it is interesting to note that a similar phenomenon occurs in the greater Dublin area. This may also be the period in which some Irish ecclesiastic sites took on some of the characteristics of towns, due to the opportunities provided by the Scandinavian inspired contraction of space and the continued concentration of power in the hands of patrons. A similar alliance came together to attack Connacht AFM This is significant in that it shows three Hiberno-Scandinavian towns being defeated by a Gaelic group while acting together possibly against a fourth. It may also indicate that Cork had by this point gone the way of Limerick and been incorporated into its local Gaelic polity. Wexford was later plundered by Toirdealbach Ua Conchobuir as part of a raid into the territory of the Laigin, into which it seems to have become incorporated by this point AU Evidence of the town being walled is provided by Giraldus Cambrensis Expugnatio 1. Whether or not it was capable of having the fighting men mentioned by Gerald Expugnatio 1. A number of round towers are located in the south-east case-study region, cf. Creolisation, Acculturation and Hybridisation According to Gosden , colonial activity can change both coloniser and colonised. This can certainly be said to hold true for Scandinavians in Ireland. Material culture seems to have developed in a unique trajectory in the Hiberno- Scandinavian towns, as evinced by the unique style of ornamental items such as armrings Sheehan , , Wallace draws attention to the differences between Hiberno-Scandinavian towns and those in Scandinavia. The use of horizontal log walls in contemporary Baltic and Scandinavian houses illustrates the divergent development of towns there and in Ireland, with differences also apparent in defences and yard layout in the excavations at Oslo, Trondheim and Tonsberg Wallace , Wallace ; ; Hurley Their distribution at present may represent the extent of excavation in each of the towns, rather than their actual distribution. Of these seven, only types 1 and 4 seem to have parallels outside Ireland. Type 1 has been the most common type found so far, and has been uncovered at Dublin, Waterford and Wexford, but not Limerick Wallace , The only known parallels for the type 1 house in Scandinavia are from Kaupang, which was abandoned c. The type also seems to have been in use in non- Scandinavian northern Europe. This can be taken as being an example of conservative creolisation, where colonists adhere to a cultural trait of their homeland long after it has gone out of use there. Wallace notes a number of parallels with York. Anglo-Scandinavian York was located at the confluence of the Ouse and the Foss, the evidence for a defensive embankment uncovered at Hungate is similar in scale to that used at Hiberno-Scandinavian towns, and York also had sunken featured structures Wallace , It should also be noted that Dublin and York were ruled by the same dynasty until the mid-tenth century Wallace , ; Downham , a dynasty which also held Limerick and Waterford until the tenth and eleventh centuries respectively. Mytum wisely questions the level of integration between the two populations, it would seem as though there was little cultural syncretism beyond the towns, and even there the level of hybridity seems to have been low. Some acculturation did occur, probably in both directions, it was never total in the case of Scandinavian settlers. They participated in Irish society, but were not of it, the inhabitants of the towns retained a distinct identity. One example of acculturation may be the adoption of Christianity in the early eleventh century by the colonists. This surely must be taken as a sign of apartedness in the elites of these towns. In fact, in some ways, Scandinavian colonialism helped foster a stronger shared sense of Gaelic identity, by providing a means for definition by contradistinction cf. Binchy b. While a number of loan-words from Old Norse were adopted into Middle Irish over the course of Scandinavian activity in Ireland, the overall number was still comparatively low compared with Manx and Gaelic of Scotland, and limited largely to urban life, military and nautical matters cf. This can be taken as an indicator of low Gaelic acculturation. Bhabha , such as that occupied by the later Anglo-Irish descendents of Anglo-Norman settlers, or by creoles in Latin America. They were culturally different from both their homeland and their adopted land, especially after a number of generations, they were creolised. Gosden ; DeMarrais Identity can be something that is chosen, and it is possible to have multiple identities. Those living in Hiberno-Scandinavian towns may well have adopted dual or even shifting identities. It also implies that the surnames may have been acquired in the bilingual environment through familiar names McEvoy et al , Studies such as these indicate the dangers of assigning biological ethnicity based on material culture. However, it should be borne in mind that they used a sample of 47 men representing 26 surnames associated with Scandinavian ancestry in Ireland. Perhaps at some point in the future a larger study will be done with a more statistically significant sized sample group. Anglo-Norman Colonialism in Ireland 4. Invasion The exact points of entry are known from historical sources, the first was at Bannow, where a force of c. A second lay c. The same is also true for Britain in the years after the Norman Conquest. For many years the established wisdom assigned this role to mottes, but the complexities of motte construction, as shown by Higham and Barker at Hen Domen, has rendered that monument unsuitable for the task of territorial acquisition. Internal buildings would largely have been timber built, although internal stone buildings may possibly have been used on occasion. Their identification in the landscape can be problematic, due to their morphological similarity to ringforts Barry , However, it should be noted that numerous examples of ringforts of this size exist in the archaeological record. The ASI has ringworks listed on its database www. Kildare Fanning , Clonard, Co. Kilkenny, and Ferrycarraig, Co. Wexford Bennett , Meath Sweetman a uncovered evidence for a preceding ringwork. Similar evidence exists for preceding ringworks at similar sites in the case-studies, at Ferns Sweetman Limerick, Wiggins , Kilkenny, Carlow Sweetman, , 6 and Adare, Co. Limerick Barry , 49ff. This, combined with their defensibility, would have made them ideal campaign headquarters and residences for a newly established power. They had already been successfully used in the Norman subjugation of 21 The majority of these are found in Co. Platt , and they would not be used in Ireland for the same purpose. Therefore, they are regarded in this project as being monuments of the expansion phase of the colonial process. Ringworks were built to lay a claim on territory granted to various Anglo-Norman lords involved in the initial activity in Ireland to establish manors, in order to repay their service. In order to provide the necessary incentive, these grants would have had to consist of land favourable to arable agriculture. Their siting represents the centres of the initial settlement, although some may have been replaced with mottes in the consolidation phase. As can be seen from figure 4. They are also in areas of relatively low local Gaelic secular settlement. Whether this is due to the later destruction of Gaelic settlement sites by arable agriculture Barrett and Graham ; cf. Stout or the Anglo-Normans avoidance areas of dense Gaelic settlement is difficult to surmise. Such locations were favourable to pastoral agriculture. The Anglo-Norman economy was based on arable agriculture, to which large low lying areas of the south-east are suitable. Slade provided two tries for England, while Owen Farrell notched three conversions and two penalties. Obviously, it's a top side, and a top place to come out and play. We had a lot of defending to do. The win will provide a major respite for England head coach Eddie Jones, who has been under fire in his third year in charge. The Australian withstood a five-game losing streak before defeating South Africa in June. We're obviously pleased with our performance because we played a top team today," he said. England will face their next challenge on February 10 against France in Twickenham..

Export Citation. Here you can find all Crossref-listed publications in M m domination in ireland this article is cited. User Account Log in Register Help. Search Close. Advanced Search Help. Show Summary Details. This year's Six Nations began by fielding one of the strongest collection of teams in the tournament's history. Ireland are ranked No. Wales and England are ranked third and fourth, respectively, while Scotland sits in seventh M m domination in ireland and France ninth.

Only Italy, who some bookmakers gave to 1 odds of winning before the tournament, are considered real outsiders as world No. England ready for tournament.

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More Videos Six Nations: Lesbian kissing to sex. Ireland Irish: The capital and largest city is Dublinwhich is located on the eastern part of the island, and whose metropolitan area is home to around a third of the country's over 4.

Firans Xxx Watch Video Tarzana sex. Kilcummin and Beaufort secure Kingdom domination in Croke Park The two Kerry sides ensured the intermediate and junior titles will both head south Sat, Feb 9, , Beaufort Easkey In the junior decider, Beaufort eased to a record breaking point win over Easkey to ensure a Kerry double of national crowns. More from The Irish Times Rugby. Sponsored Putting the Dyson V11 through its paces. Moving up? Tips to increase the value of your home when selling. Cork becomes focus as first-time buyer's mortgage event heads south. It was a downturn in fortunes they never want to repeat. The lowest we have had is two penalties against us in a game and we have had some double figures that we are not happy with. Painting the right picture for the officials at the breakdown is an imperative. Therefore, they have got to do a lap around the pitch and when they get back they will be tired. What good behaviour does for Ireland is help level the playing field. Teasdale, S. Making Sense of Social Enterprise Discourses. Social Enterprises and the Social Economy. Evaluation of the Social Economy Programme. It was subsumed into the government Department of Jobs, Enterprise and Innovation in EMES is an international research network, established in , whose goal is to build a European body of theoretical and empirical knowledge of social enterprise and other third sector issues. There is no real consensus about the size of the sector or its likely parameters. Social enterprises are not included in official statistics and estimates vary greatly and can be easily contested. Prizeman and Crossan EMES is an international research network, established in with a focus on social enterprises. In the charity was the subject of a number of an investigations regarding salaries for senior staff and the unsanctioned use of government funds for administrative and transport costs. By , a new CEO was in place and the Irish Government had put in place a Charities Regulator was in place to provide oversight for the entire Irish charity sector. The Irish Council for Social Housing note that since non-profit housing associations, have been earmarked by Government for an enhanced role in the supply of new social housing. The core criteria of the EC definition suggest that the organisation must: Successive Irish governments have typically used community-based employment schemes as a response to employment support for the unemployed and indirectly funding the work of the community and voluntary sector in the provision of social and related services Leigh-Doyle ; Harvey There is a notable link between periods of national unemployment and statutory discourse on social enterprises e. Community Employment was established by the Irish government in the s. It is an active labour market programme ALMP that supports community-based projects. The aim of CE is to enhance the employability and mobility of disadvantaged and unemployed persons by providing work experience and training opportunities in their communities. Government contracts for public service delivery include: The Forfas typology is based on objectives and activities rather than organizational form as there is no legal identify for social enterprises in Ireland. Rather a social enterprise is typically legally incorporated as a Company Limited by Guarantee CLG with charitable status, and will have a board of voluntary directors. Consequently, there is practically no diversity in organisational form within the sector. Whilst the EU definition calls for independence the national operational definition refers to the need to be separate from the state. This could be argued to mean the same thing however the difference in language is used as a basis, in the report, for suggesting this slight difference between the two operational definitions. For more see: Social Entrepreneurs Ireland supports social entrepreneurs who can come up with innovative solutions to social problems. In the Irish Government published Putting People First , a major programme for fundamental reform of local government. Survey of Irish charities undertaken in by The Wheel organisation. By the Irish government had enacted the Charities Act and appointed a Charities Regulator to implement new codes of practice, governance and ensure a full publication of all the financial expenditures of the sector. Export Citation. Here you can find all Crossref-listed publications in which this article is cited. User Account Log in Register Help. Search Close. Advanced Search Help. Show Summary Details. More options …. Nonprofit Policy Forum. Young, Dennis R. Open Access. Online ISSN See all formats and pricing Online. Prices are subject to change without notice. Prices do not include postage and handling if applicable. Recommended Retail Price. Should Blockers Be Blocked? When Good Intentions Go Wrong: Policy Brief: It was Scotland's sixth win in a row over Italy in all competitions. The Italians did have one thing to celebrate -- a record 66th Six Nations appearance for captain Sergio Parisse, who broke the record held by Ireland's Brian O'Driscoll. The year-old, who also holds the unenviable record of losing Test matches, would have preferred an elusive win over the record. We gave Scotland a lot of possession. It's good to defend, but you can't defend all the time. It emphasised and glorified the colonial past Trigger , To an extent this also can be said to have been true for Ireland, both in archaeology and historiography. As recently as , Othway-Ruthven provides a narrative of post-invasion [i. The latter is at once a description of the Irish land and society, and a justification for their subjugation. The other main textual source for the period, The Song of Dermot and the Earl,1 an anonymous rhymed chronicle in Old French probably dating to the early thirteenth century, provides a highly personalised narrative of events, while also listing in detail the initial distribution of land to the first generation of settlers Bartlett , This personalised narrative has dominated much of the historiographical literature on the invasion. Ireland is a post-colonial national state, and among the oldest at that, therefore it provides a useful study in the nationalism of a nascent state. Nationalism seems to be a necessary phase of the post-colonial condition cf. Young , ; Anderson , ff. Macalister holder of the chair of Celtic Archaeology at University College Dublin in the early years of the twentieth century regarding the study of Anglo-Norman archaeology they are worth quoting here: In speaking of the antiquities of the period, it will be unnecessary to make more than passing allusions to those remains which are English in all but geographical situation. Such subjects are cross-legged effigies, pavement tiles, Plantagenet coins, arms and armour are a branch of English archaeology and even their extension to Ireland is much more a matter of English than Irish interest Macalister , The Viking period has occupied more of a grey area, with the myth of , of the supposed expulsion of the Vikings by Brian Boruma at the Battle of Clontarf, being seen as another high point. It looms large in the Irish conscience collective, providing the images used on several generations of coinage, paper money, stamps and other national symbols cf. Binchy a. Four thousand years ago her people guided the first faltering steps of the Folk of the North on the way to civilisation. Twelve hundred years ago they shepherded a war-broken Europe upon the way of learning and the way of life. May she prove worthy of her ancient past; may she find that once more she has a mission to a bewildered, rudderless world: Anderson draws attention to this trend in general for expatriate communities and their roles in conservative cultural nationalism. This shift in focus was also facilitated by the increased amount of data available from excavation and survey on the colonial period. At Wood Quay one of the most important excavations in medieval European archaeology was conducted in a ludicrously short period ahead of the construction of the new civic offices in Dublin in the late s to public uproar. The incident illustrates that while the line of thought as evinced by Macalister remained strong in the corridors of power until comparatively recently, a new generation of the Irish public and academy were now engaging with their medieval colonial past. The former provides a study of rural settlement in Ireland in both native and colonial areas, the latter examining the evidence for urban and rural life, economic activity, and the Church in this period. For the pre-Norman period, Edwards , provides culture-historical surveys of the archaeology of medieval Ireland from c. Mytum conducts an important large-scale study of the pre-Viking medieval Irish society from a processualist perspective, taking a systems based approach to examine the factors influencing change and stability in the social, economic, political and religious sub-systems. Valente provides a thorough survey of the Vikings in Ireland, utilising both archaeological and historical evidence. Downham discusses the Viking kings of Britain and Ireland, largely from a historical perspective. Graham-Campbell , Kenny , , Dolley and Sheehan , , provide a discussion of the numismatic and non- numismatic evidence, largely from hoarding. It is difficult to ignore the historical narrative when investigating this period. While this project is archaeological in nature, taking the distribution of monuments in the landscape as the starting point for its analysis, use will also be made of historical and historiographical texts. A number of sites are known only from documentary evidence, usually either from the annals and early legal texts cf. Hughes ; Kelly or from later documents contained in collections such as the Calendars of State Papers Relating to Ireland cf. Asplin However, it should be noted that there is often a far higher number of particular monuments in the landscape than are documented in the textual evidence. This should be borne in mind when dealing with the Irish material. A number of relevant historical and cross-disciplinary general studies have been conducted. In addition to the studies already mentioned, Dolley , Martin a, b, c, d, , Lydon a, b , Glasscock , Simms and Roche provide historical accounts of the Anglo-Norman period in Ireland. Lydon , b, c, d , Watt a, c , and Down focus on the history of the later medieval period. Nicholls , , and Watt b examine the evidence for the development of Gaelic society in the high and late medieval periods. MacNiocaill discusses Ireland in the years c. Watt provides an outline of the historical development of the medieval Irish church beginning with these reforms. As can be seen from the above evidence, the majority of scholarship on medieval Ireland rarely treats the period in its entirety. A great number of studies on the period place the twelfth century as their starting or ending point, despite the many continuities. Duffy , 2ff warns against the use of , the year of the commencement of Anglo-Norman colonialism, as a starting or finishing point for analysis, placing instead the Anglo-Norman arrival at the centre of his analysis. This project goes further still, treating both the arrival of Viking and Anglo-Norman colonists as parts of a longer term social dynamic as opposed as zero-points or ruptures. Post-Colonial Theory Post-colonial theory has shown the value of analysing the particular rather than the general, and of recognising that multiple narratives exist told by multiple voices. It has provided an important corrective to the World Systems approach which, although being an important macro-level approach can tend to over-generalise and focus too heavily on core-periphery relations Gosden ; Naum It has helped us to attune our faculties to messages from the subaltern zone, to narratives of the dominated and the dispossessed Young Might we also find such messages in the past by analysing the changes in settlement form and patterning due to colonial activity in medieval Ireland, or elsewhere in the archaeological record? Naum applies this concept archaeologically to frontier areas in the Baltic and early colonial North America at different points in time to great effect. These concepts may also be applied to Ireland. Combining archaeological and post-colonial approaches is mutually beneficial, as the latter have often lacked long term perspective, usually confining themselves to the early modern and modern periods. Archaeology has much to contribute to the study of colonialism. As Gosden has shown, it can supply the long term perspective often lacking in post-colonial theory, providing a basis for comparisons across time and space. To understand medieval colonialism is to better understand the shaping of Europe and later European colonialism cf. Bartlett Naum , 3 notes that the focus of scholars is naturally coloured by the sources and methods they are trained to work with. This is true in a triple sense, it is for those narrating about, narrated about and narrated to, with each bearing complex links to the other. Certain groups of those narrated about may have the ability to control those narrating. Late twentieth century thought proclaimed, amongst other things, the death of the meta-narrative, perhaps justifiably, at least in some respects. No two human biographies are the same, and the same holds true for national state biographies. The path each national state, past or present, has taken to statehood has been different, there are no totally self contained political units, as Mann , 1 agrees. Care should also be taken to avoid lapses into Hegelian teleology; there has not been a unilinear path of social development inevitably leading up to the present day cf. Elias Mann , Diamond , and Christian have shown the benefit of a cross disciplinary comparative approach to the study of long term social dynamics. Studies such as these have moved away from the tendency of many socio- political studies of state formation and social change to derive their data largely from historical sources without paying enough attention to archaeological evidence, which limited their long term perspective. However, it is still possible to gain an understanding of the Big Picture, not from the meta-narratives of old, but from aggregate-narratives, combining a number of micro-narratives and region specific studies cf. Collins , 8. By integrating medieval Ireland into the traditions of post-colonial particularism and big-history comparative generalities, it is hoped that it will be possible to move beyond the polemicism that has blighted the study of colonial medieval Ireland. Moreover, by placing Ireland within the larger European dynamic, which this project will briefly do, it is possible to gain a good deal of perspective on the processes at work. Relevant full narratives are available in the various relevant texts mentioned in section 1. The years in question were characterised by a number of processes. The first is a centrifugal pattern of social development across Europe, from societies where social power was more heterarchically dispersed amongst a contending elite, towards a society where power has become concentrated in fewer hands. This was the case for Ireland c. This will be discussed further in later chapters. Settlement most likely began in the s, most likely to provide over-wintering and a reasonably secure base of operations for raiders. The raiders most likely came from the west coast of Norway. There may have been a failed attempt to gain control over territory in Ireland at this point. Evidence for attempts by those further up the hierarchy in Scandinavia to gain control over Scandinavian activity in Ireland is to be found in the historical record in the late s and s. Some settlements seem to have become permanent in the latter half of the ninth century, and in the tenth century several towns seem to have been in operation, such as Dublin, Limerick, Waterford, Cork and Wexford. These towns became caught up in the process of Irish state formation, and by the eleventh century they were largely under some form of control by Gaelic Irish elites. The military superiority of a group at the heart of military developments in Europe and beyond over the previous two centuries meant that a large swathe of territory quickly came under the control of this king and his allies. This led Henry II, king of England to arrive in Ireland with a large force, in order to bring this group under his control. This meant that colonialism in Ireland was centrally controlled from then on. Anglo- Norman colonists gained control of a large part of Ireland, holding some of it for a considerable length of time. The remit of this project ends in the late fourteenth century, as it is at this point the Irish social developmental trajectory enters another phase, with the contraction of the area under control from London to the greater Dublin area, and the southern part of Wexford, and the rise to prominence of Anglo-Irish families of original Anglo-Norman extraction, prior to the Tudor reconquest in the sixteenth century. Province- kingdoms are capitalised, and the names of lesser kingdoms and peoples mentioned later in the text are in lower case. Chapter 3 deals with Scandinavian colonial settlement, while also addressing pre-colonial Gaelic settlement, and Gaelic settlement contemporary to colonial activity in each of the case-study regions. It also deals briefly with the pre-colonial raiding phase. It assesses the effects of colonial activity on both coloniser and colonised along with the success and failures of the Scandinavian colonial endeavour in terms of the proposed expansion, consolidation and domination model. Chapter 4 does the same for the Anglo-Norman period, beginning with a continuation of the description of Gaelic society, before discussing the re-ordering of the landscape in the phases of Anglo-Norman expansion, consolidation and domination, while also discussing the related parallel processes of acculturation, creolisation and hybridisation, and the retraction of the colony. Chapter 5 comparatively discusses the key features of the colonial phases, while also discussing cross-cultural parallels, and puts forward a theory of colonialism. The final section of the chapter puts forward a theory of colonialism based on the work conducted in this thesis, in the light of other existing theories, and its suitability for use in the analysis of other colonial processes at other points in space and time discussed. Chapter 2. Methods 2. Ethnicity is an extremely relevant topic in modern society. The widespread ethnic conflict of recent decades has led to an increasing prominence of scholarship related to ethnicity across the human and social sciences cf. Edwards , ; Jones , 40ff. Moreover, recent advances in the study of population genetics have brought the genetic aspect of ethnicity back into discussion Cavalli-Sforza ; Jobling ; Capelli et al ; McEvoy et al ; Moore et al ; Hill, Jobling and Bradley This is indicative of the highly problematic nature of the identification of certain types of material culture with supposedly discrete cultural units and ethnic groups. The reading of unsuitable present day conceptions of ethnicity and identity back into the past can be epistemologically unsound cf. Jones Nelson draws attention to existence of the holding of multiple identities by various groups and individuals in the medieval period and to the fluid nature even of ethnic identity. This is highly relevant, as we shall see for Irish Viking Age cities. Ethnicity can be an extremely important anchorage for identity, but not the only anchorage. There are numerous examples of multiple overlapping identities to be found throughout the record of human society. Religious affiliation, consumption choice, geographical 3 While population genetics techniques, such as the examination of Y-chromosomal traits in certain populations, are still in their infancy, genetic evidence could become as important for archaeology as radiocarbondating. Durkheim ; ; Bourdieu ; Maffesoli Material culture can be an important mediator in identity formation, providing a means of shaping both habitus and identity cf. Bourdieu ; DeMarrais ; Gosden However, it fails to take cultural processes into account, it fails to address overlapping identities, and fails to take the epicurean nature of humanity into account. Archaeological thought has sought to move on from the description of past archaeological cultures and onto themes such as environmental adaptation, state formation, and the phenomenological aspects of monument and material culture amongst others. It has largely sought to move beyond the identification of peoples, and to even ignore it. However, the history of knowledge has thought us that paradigm shifts can tend to move too completely from those paradigms preceding it cf. Kuhn ; Popper Certain groups did build specific monuments and used certain types of portable material culture. Barmbrack is a yeasted bread with added sultanas and raisins , traditionally eaten on Halloween. Popular everyday beverages among the Irish include tea and coffee. James's Gate in Dublin. Irish whiskey is also popular throughout the country and comes in various forms, including single malt, single grain, and blended whiskey. Gaelic football and hurling are the traditional sports of Ireland as well as most popular spectator sports. Other Gaelic games organised by the association include Gaelic handball and rounders. Soccer is the third most popular spectator sport and has the highest level of participation. The Irish Rugby Football Union is the governing body of rugby union , which is played at local and international levels on an all-Ireland basis, and has produced players such as Brian O'Driscoll and Ronan O'Gara , who were on the team that won the Grand Slam in The success of the Irish Cricket Team in the Cricket World Cup has led to an increase in the popularity of cricket , which is also administered on an all-Ireland basis by Cricket Ireland. Professional domestic matches are played between the major cricket unions of Leinster , Munster , Northern , and North West. Netball is represented by the Ireland national netball team. Golf is another popular sport in Ireland, with over courses countrywide. Horse Racing has a very large presence in Ireland, with one of the most influential breeding and racing operations based in the country. Racing takes place at courses at The Curragh Racecourse in County Kildare and at Leopardstown Racecourse , racing taking place since the s, but racing taking place as early as the early s. Popular race meetings also take place at Galway. Operations include Coolmore Stud and Ballydoyle , the base of Aidan O'Brien arguably one of the world's most successful horse trainers. Ireland has produced champion horses such as Galileo , Montjeu , and Sea the Stars. Boxing is Ireland's most successful sport at an Olympic level. Administered by the Irish Athletic Boxing Association on an all-Ireland basis, it has gained in popularity as a result of the international success of boxers such as Bernard Dunne , Andy Lee and Katie Taylor. The annual Dublin Marathon and Dublin Women's Mini Marathon are two of the most popular athletics events in the country. Rugby league is represented by the Ireland national rugby league team and administered by Rugby League Ireland who are full member of the Rugby League European Federation on an all-Ireland basis. The profile of Australian rules football has increased in Ireland due to the International rules series that take place annually between Australia and Ireland. Baseball and basketball are also emerging sports in Ireland, both of which have an international team representing the island of Ireland. Other sports which retain a strong following in Ireland include cycling , greyhound racing , horse riding , motorsport , and softball. Ireland ranks fifth in the world in terms of gender equality. The prohibition on divorce in the Constitution was repealed in under the Fifteenth Amendment. Divorce rates in Ireland are very low compared to European Union averages 0. Same-sex marriage in the Republic of Ireland was legalized in with the Thirty-fourth Amendment. Capital punishment is constitutionally banned in Ireland, while discrimination based on age, gender, sexual orientation, marital or familial status, religion, race or membership of the travelling community is illegal. The legislation which outlawed homosexual acts was repealed in Ireland became the first country in the world to introduce an environmental levy for plastic shopping bags in and a public smoking ban in Recycling in Ireland is carried out extensively, and Ireland has the second highest rate of packaging recycling in the European Union. It was the first country in Europe to ban incandescent lightbulbs in and the first EU country to ban in-store tobacco advertising and product display in The state shares many symbols with the island of Ireland. These include the colours green and blue , animals such as the Irish wolfhound and stags , structures such as round towers and celtic crosses , and designs such as Celtic knots and spirals. The shamrock , a type of clover , has been a national symbol of Ireland since the 17th century when it became customary to wear it as a symbol on St. Patrick's Day. These symbols are used by state institutions as well as private bodies in the Republic of Ireland. The flag of Ireland is a tricolour of green, white and orange. The flag originates with the Young Ireland movement of the midth century but was not popularised until its use during the Easter Rising of A naval jack , a green flag with a yellow harp, is set out in Defence Forces Regulations and flown from the bows of warships in addition to the national flag in limited circumstances e. It is based on the unofficial green ensign of Ireland used in the 18th and 19th centuries and the traditional green flag of Ireland dating from the 16th century. A Soldier's Song , has its roots in the Easter Rising, when the song was sung by the rebels. Although originally published in English in , [] the song was translated into Irish in and the Irish-language version is more commonly sung today. The arms of Ireland originate as the arms of the monarchs of Ireland and was recorded as the arms of the King of Ireland in the 12th century. From the union of the crowns of England , Scotland and Ireland in , they have appeared quartered on the royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom. Today, they are the personal arms of the President of Ireland whilst he or she is in office and are flown as the presidential standard. The harp symbol is used extensively by the state to mark official documents, Irish coinage and on the seal of the President of Ireland. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the sovereign state. For other uses, see Ireland disambiguation. Ireland [a]. Coat of arms. Irish English [1]. National language. Main article: Names of the Irish state. History of the Republic of Ireland. For the history of the entire island, see History of Ireland. Home Rule movement. Geography of Ireland. Climate of Ireland. Politics of the Republic of Ireland. Local government in the Republic of Ireland. Main articles: Foreign relations of the Republic of Ireland. See also: Ireland—NATO relations. Defence Forces Ireland. Economy of the Republic of Ireland. Corporation tax in the Republic of Ireland. Energy in Ireland. Demographics of the Republic of Ireland. Irish population analysis. List of urban areas in the Republic of Ireland by population. Healthcare in the Republic of Ireland. Education in the Republic of Ireland. Religion in the Republic of Ireland. Culture of Ireland. Irish literature. Irish music and Irish dance. Architecture of Ireland. Media of the Republic of Ireland. Irish cuisine. List of Irish dishes. Sport in Ireland. Symbols of the Republic of Ireland. Ireland portal Celtic Studies portal. The euro was introduced as an accounting currency in Office of the Attorney-General. Retrieved 18 February Retrieved 28 April International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 1 October Most Read in Sport. AIL clubs are in an unsustainable mess. Subscriber Only. Matt Williams: In pictures: Tiger Woods' US Masters fairytale..

It is a unitaryparliamentary republic. It had the status of Dominion until when a new constitution was adopted, in which the state was named "Ireland" and effectively became a republic, with an elected non-executive president as head of state. It was officially declared a republic infollowing the Republic of Ireland Act Ireland became a member of the United Nations in December The M m domination in ireland had no formal relations M m domination in ireland Northern Ireland for most of the twentieth century, but during the s and s the British and Irish governments worked with the Northern Ireland parties towards a resolution to " the Troubles ".

Since the signing of the Good Friday Agreement inthe Irish government and Northern Ireland Executive have co-operated on a number of policy areas under the North-South Ministerial Council created by the Agreement.

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Ireland ranks among the top ten wealthiest countries in the world in terms of GDP per capita, [10] and as the tenth most prosperous country in the world according to The Legatum Prosperity Index The country achieved considerable prosperity between the years of andwhich became known as the Celtic Tiger period.

This read more halted by an unprecedented financial crisis that began inin conjunction with the concurrent global economic crash. For example, inIreland was ranked as the joint sixth with Germany most developed country in the world by the United Nations Human Development Index. The Irish government has followed a policy of military neutrality through non-alignment since immediately prior to World War II and the country is consequently not a member of NATO[16] although it is a member of Partnership for Peace.

The state, comprising 26 of the 32 counties M m domination in ireland Irelandwas "styled and known as the Irish Free State". Section 2 of the Republic of Ireland Act states, "It is hereby declared that the description of the State M m domination in ireland be the Republic of Ireland.

Republic of Ireland

The government of the United Kingdom used the name "Eire" without the diacritic and, from"Republic of Ireland", for the state; [19] it was not until the M m domination in ireland Friday Agreement that it used the name "Ireland". M m domination in ireland was firstly through widespread agrarian agitation via the Irish Land Leaguethat won land reforms for tenants in the form of the Irish Land Actsand secondly through its attempts to achieve Home Rulevia two M m domination in ireland bills which would have granted Ireland limited national autonomy.

These led to "grass-roots" control of national affairs, under the Local Government Actthat had been in the hands of landlord-dominated grand juries of the Protestant Ascendancy. However, the Unionist movement had been growing since among Irish Protestants after the introduction of the first home rule bill, fearing discrimination and loss of economic and social privileges if Irish Catholics achieved real political power.

In the late 19th and early 20th century unionism was particularly strong in parts of Ulsterwhere industrialisation was more common in contrast to the more agrarian rest M m domination in ireland the island, and where the Protestant population was more prominent, with a majority in four counties.

Asquith introduced an Amending Bill reluctantly conceded to by the Irish Party leadership. This provided for the temporary exclusion of Ulster from the workings of the M m domination in ireland for a trial period of six years, with an as yet undecided new set of measures to be introduced for the area to be temporarily excluded.

Though it received the Royal Assent and was placed M m domination in ireland the statute books inthe implementation of the Third Home Rule Act was suspended until after the First World War which defused the threat of civil read article in Ireland.

M m domination in ireland the hope of ensuring the implementation of the Act at the end of the war through Ireland's engagement in the warRedmond and his Irish National Volunteers supported Britain and its Allies.

The remainder of the Irish Volunteerswho opposed any support of Britain, launched an armed insurrection against British rule in the Easter Risingtogether with the Irish Citizen Army.

This commenced on 24 April with the declaration of independence. After a week of heavy fighting, primarily in Dublin, the surviving rebels were forced to surrender their positions.

The majority were imprisoned but fifteen of the prisoners including most of the leaders were executed as traitors to Britain. This included Patrick Pearsethe spokesman for the rising and who provided the signal to the volunteers to start the rising, as well as James Connollysocialist and founder of the Industrial Workers of the World union and both the Irish and Scottish Labour movements.

These events, together with the Conscription Crisis ofhad a profound effect on changing public opinion in Ireland. The Declaration was mainly a restatement of the Proclamation with the additional provision that Ireland was no longer a part of the United Kingdom. O'Kelly to the Paris Peace Conference ofbut it was not admitted.

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Northern Ireland exercised its right under the treaty to leave the new Dominion and rejoined the United Kingdom on 8 December It did so by making an address to the King requesting, "that the powers of the Parliament and Government of the Irish Free State shall no longer extend to Northern Ireland.

The country had a governor-general representing the monarcha bicameral parliament, a cabinet called the "Executive Council", and a prime minister called the President of the Executive Council. Pro-treaty forces, led by Michael Collinsargued that the treaty gave "not the M m domination in ireland freedom that all nations aspire to and develop, but the freedom to achieve it". However, because the anti-treaty IRA lacked an effective command structure and because click the pro-treaty forces' defensive tactics throughout the war, Michael Collins and his pro-treaty forces were able to M m domination in ireland up an army with many tens of thousands of World War I veterans from the disbanded Irish regiments of the British Army, capable of overwhelming the anti-treatyists.

British supplies of artillery, aircraft, machine-guns and ammunition boosted pro-treaty forces, and the threat of a return of Crown forces to the Free State removed any doubts about the necessity of enforcing the treaty. The lack of public support for the anti-treaty forces often called the Irregulars and the determination of M m domination in ireland government to overcome the Irregulars contributed significantly to their defeat.

Although the constitution established the office of President of Irelandthe question over whether Ireland was a republic remained open. Diplomats were accredited to the king, but the president exercised all internal functions of a head of state.

This rule was changed 10 days after Ireland declared itself a republic, with the London Declaration of 28 April Ireland did not reapply when the rules were altered to permit republics to join. Ireland became a member of the United Nations in DecemberM m domination in ireland having been denied membership because of its neutral M m domination in ireland during the Second World War and not supporting the Allied cause.

However, the founding EEC members remained skeptical regarding Ireland's economic capacity, neutrality, and unattractive protectionist policy.

Six Nations: England shock Ireland with impressive opening win

The prospect of EEC membership became doubtful in when French President General Charles de Gaulle stated that France opposed Britain's accession, which ceased negotiations with all other candidate countries. However, in his successor, Georges Pompidouwas not opposed to British and Irish membership. Negotiations began and in the Treaty of Accession was signed. A referendum held in confirmed Ireland's entry, and it finally joined the EEC in M m domination in ireland became one of the world's fastest growing economies by the late s in what was known as the Celtic Tiger period, which lasted until the global Financial crisis of M m domination in ireland However, sinceIreland has experienced increased economic activity.

In the Northern Ireland question, the British and Irish governments started to seek a peaceful resolution to the violent conflict involving many paramilitaries and the British Army in Northern Ireland known as " The Troubles ".

Chainis Fuck Watch Video Xxx Dediarte. Crossword Get access to over 6, interactive crosswords. Our Writers. Matt Williams Matt Williams: John O'Sullivan Munster eager to halt dismal run of six semi-final defeats. Camogie crying out for positive change. The rebirth of French attacking flair is happening before our eyes. Sign In. Don't have an account? Forgot Password? Not an Irish Times subscriber? Invasion 69 4. Scandinavian and Anglo-Norman Colonialism Considered 5. Not least among these is my supervisor, Dr James Barrett, whose continual and tireless help and advice, even in the face of my near intractable stubbornness, throughout the project has been greatly appreciated. I would also like to acknowledge the help and advice of the following: Table 2. Chapter 4 Table 4. Table 4. Chapter 5 Table 5. Table 5. List of Illustrations Chapter 1 Figure 1. Chapter 2 Figure 2. Figure 2. Chapter 3 Figure 3. Figure 3. Chapter 4 Figure 4. Figure 4. Introduction and Research Context 1. The successes, failures, similarities and differences of Scandinavian and Anglo-Norman settlement and society in Ireland are examined and compared in this project in terms of three sub-phases of the overall process, namely expansion, consolidation and domination, within an overall developmental diachronic framework. He is quite critical of the tendency for historiography to identify zero-points in the trajectory of human development , With this in mind, rather than taking two chronologically and geographically separate colonial episodes, treating them synchronically and then comparing them, this project takes two colonial episodes occurring within the same space over time. The two colonial episodes are not treated as historical zero-points but rather as periods of accelerated change in a dynamic social continuum. This approach makes it possible to analyse the factors influencing social change and stasis in Ireland from c. Colonialism in each phase took different forms. The continuity of settlement evidence as a presence in the archaeological record provides a sound base from which to move outwards into further explanatory avenues. This study examines the effects of colonial activity on settlement form and patterning in the medieval Irish landscape both spatially and temporally. It assesses whether the appearance, disappearance and changing inter-relationships of certain forms and patterns were due to colonial stimuli, internal native political developments or environmental constraints. By doing so, changes in the access to or control over ideological, military, economic and political resources can be mapped out over time, illustrating shifting configurations in the exercise of social power cf. Mann ; Elias ; Tilly This project also examines the extent to which the colonial activity can be seen as part of a planned process, and the extent to which it was organic, consisting of a series of contingent events and developments. The analysis of changes in settlement form and patterning in the landscape over time can be used to provide insights into all of these issues. Trigger points to the existence of a number of traditions within archaeology, namely nationalist, colonial and imperialist archaeologies. These are ideal types however, and many archaeological traditions contain elements of more than one , , While Trigger points to Czech and Danish archaeology as being examples of the former especially , , Ireland can be taken as another example, although there have been elements of the other two forms also at work there. It emphasised and glorified the colonial past Trigger , To an extent this also can be said to have been true for Ireland, both in archaeology and historiography. As recently as , Othway-Ruthven provides a narrative of post-invasion [i. The latter is at once a description of the Irish land and society, and a justification for their subjugation. The other main textual source for the period, The Song of Dermot and the Earl,1 an anonymous rhymed chronicle in Old French probably dating to the early thirteenth century, provides a highly personalised narrative of events, while also listing in detail the initial distribution of land to the first generation of settlers Bartlett , This personalised narrative has dominated much of the historiographical literature on the invasion. Ireland is a post-colonial national state, and among the oldest at that, therefore it provides a useful study in the nationalism of a nascent state. Nationalism seems to be a necessary phase of the post-colonial condition cf. Young , ; Anderson , ff. Macalister holder of the chair of Celtic Archaeology at University College Dublin in the early years of the twentieth century regarding the study of Anglo-Norman archaeology they are worth quoting here: In speaking of the antiquities of the period, it will be unnecessary to make more than passing allusions to those remains which are English in all but geographical situation. Such subjects are cross-legged effigies, pavement tiles, Plantagenet coins, arms and armour are a branch of English archaeology and even their extension to Ireland is much more a matter of English than Irish interest Macalister , The Viking period has occupied more of a grey area, with the myth of , of the supposed expulsion of the Vikings by Brian Boruma at the Battle of Clontarf, being seen as another high point. It looms large in the Irish conscience collective, providing the images used on several generations of coinage, paper money, stamps and other national symbols cf. Binchy a. Four thousand years ago her people guided the first faltering steps of the Folk of the North on the way to civilisation. Twelve hundred years ago they shepherded a war-broken Europe upon the way of learning and the way of life. May she prove worthy of her ancient past; may she find that once more she has a mission to a bewildered, rudderless world: Anderson draws attention to this trend in general for expatriate communities and their roles in conservative cultural nationalism. This shift in focus was also facilitated by the increased amount of data available from excavation and survey on the colonial period. At Wood Quay one of the most important excavations in medieval European archaeology was conducted in a ludicrously short period ahead of the construction of the new civic offices in Dublin in the late s to public uproar. The incident illustrates that while the line of thought as evinced by Macalister remained strong in the corridors of power until comparatively recently, a new generation of the Irish public and academy were now engaging with their medieval colonial past. The former provides a study of rural settlement in Ireland in both native and colonial areas, the latter examining the evidence for urban and rural life, economic activity, and the Church in this period. For the pre-Norman period, Edwards , provides culture-historical surveys of the archaeology of medieval Ireland from c. Mytum conducts an important large-scale study of the pre-Viking medieval Irish society from a processualist perspective, taking a systems based approach to examine the factors influencing change and stability in the social, economic, political and religious sub-systems. Valente provides a thorough survey of the Vikings in Ireland, utilising both archaeological and historical evidence. Downham discusses the Viking kings of Britain and Ireland, largely from a historical perspective. Graham-Campbell , Kenny , , Dolley and Sheehan , , provide a discussion of the numismatic and non- numismatic evidence, largely from hoarding. It is difficult to ignore the historical narrative when investigating this period. While this project is archaeological in nature, taking the distribution of monuments in the landscape as the starting point for its analysis, use will also be made of historical and historiographical texts. A number of sites are known only from documentary evidence, usually either from the annals and early legal texts cf. Hughes ; Kelly or from later documents contained in collections such as the Calendars of State Papers Relating to Ireland cf. Asplin However, it should be noted that there is often a far higher number of particular monuments in the landscape than are documented in the textual evidence. This should be borne in mind when dealing with the Irish material. A number of relevant historical and cross-disciplinary general studies have been conducted. In addition to the studies already mentioned, Dolley , Martin a, b, c, d, , Lydon a, b , Glasscock , Simms and Roche provide historical accounts of the Anglo-Norman period in Ireland. Lydon , b, c, d , Watt a, c , and Down focus on the history of the later medieval period. Nicholls , , and Watt b examine the evidence for the development of Gaelic society in the high and late medieval periods. MacNiocaill discusses Ireland in the years c. Watt provides an outline of the historical development of the medieval Irish church beginning with these reforms. As can be seen from the above evidence, the majority of scholarship on medieval Ireland rarely treats the period in its entirety. A great number of studies on the period place the twelfth century as their starting or ending point, despite the many continuities. Duffy , 2ff warns against the use of , the year of the commencement of Anglo-Norman colonialism, as a starting or finishing point for analysis, placing instead the Anglo-Norman arrival at the centre of his analysis. This project goes further still, treating both the arrival of Viking and Anglo-Norman colonists as parts of a longer term social dynamic as opposed as zero-points or ruptures. Post-Colonial Theory Post-colonial theory has shown the value of analysing the particular rather than the general, and of recognising that multiple narratives exist told by multiple voices. It has provided an important corrective to the World Systems approach which, although being an important macro-level approach can tend to over-generalise and focus too heavily on core-periphery relations Gosden ; Naum It has helped us to attune our faculties to messages from the subaltern zone, to narratives of the dominated and the dispossessed Young Might we also find such messages in the past by analysing the changes in settlement form and patterning due to colonial activity in medieval Ireland, or elsewhere in the archaeological record? Naum applies this concept archaeologically to frontier areas in the Baltic and early colonial North America at different points in time to great effect. These concepts may also be applied to Ireland. Combining archaeological and post-colonial approaches is mutually beneficial, as the latter have often lacked long term perspective, usually confining themselves to the early modern and modern periods. Archaeology has much to contribute to the study of colonialism. As Gosden has shown, it can supply the long term perspective often lacking in post-colonial theory, providing a basis for comparisons across time and space. To understand medieval colonialism is to better understand the shaping of Europe and later European colonialism cf. Bartlett Naum , 3 notes that the focus of scholars is naturally coloured by the sources and methods they are trained to work with. This is true in a triple sense, it is for those narrating about, narrated about and narrated to, with each bearing complex links to the other. Certain groups of those narrated about may have the ability to control those narrating. Late twentieth century thought proclaimed, amongst other things, the death of the meta-narrative, perhaps justifiably, at least in some respects. No two human biographies are the same, and the same holds true for national state biographies. The path each national state, past or present, has taken to statehood has been different, there are no totally self contained political units, as Mann , 1 agrees. Care should also be taken to avoid lapses into Hegelian teleology; there has not been a unilinear path of social development inevitably leading up to the present day cf. Elias Mann , Diamond , and Christian have shown the benefit of a cross disciplinary comparative approach to the study of long term social dynamics. Studies such as these have moved away from the tendency of many socio- political studies of state formation and social change to derive their data largely from historical sources without paying enough attention to archaeological evidence, which limited their long term perspective. However, it is still possible to gain an understanding of the Big Picture, not from the meta-narratives of old, but from aggregate-narratives, combining a number of micro-narratives and region specific studies cf. Collins , 8. By integrating medieval Ireland into the traditions of post-colonial particularism and big-history comparative generalities, it is hoped that it will be possible to move beyond the polemicism that has blighted the study of colonial medieval Ireland. Moreover, by placing Ireland within the larger European dynamic, which this project will briefly do, it is possible to gain a good deal of perspective on the processes at work. Relevant full narratives are available in the various relevant texts mentioned in section 1. The years in question were characterised by a number of processes. The first is a centrifugal pattern of social development across Europe, from societies where social power was more heterarchically dispersed amongst a contending elite, towards a society where power has become concentrated in fewer hands. This was the case for Ireland c. This will be discussed further in later chapters. Settlement most likely began in the s, most likely to provide over-wintering and a reasonably secure base of operations for raiders. The raiders most likely came from the west coast of Norway. There may have been a failed attempt to gain control over territory in Ireland at this point. Evidence for attempts by those further up the hierarchy in Scandinavia to gain control over Scandinavian activity in Ireland is to be found in the historical record in the late s and s. Some settlements seem to have become permanent in the latter half of the ninth century, and in the tenth century several towns seem to have been in operation, such as Dublin, Limerick, Waterford, Cork and Wexford. These towns became caught up in the process of Irish state formation, and by the eleventh century they were largely under some form of control by Gaelic Irish elites. The military superiority of a group at the heart of military developments in Europe and beyond over the previous two centuries meant that a large swathe of territory quickly came under the control of this king and his allies. This led Henry II, king of England to arrive in Ireland with a large force, in order to bring this group under his control. This meant that colonialism in Ireland was centrally controlled from then on. Anglo- Norman colonists gained control of a large part of Ireland, holding some of it for a considerable length of time. The remit of this project ends in the late fourteenth century, as it is at this point the Irish social developmental trajectory enters another phase, with the contraction of the area under control from London to the greater Dublin area, and the southern part of Wexford, and the rise to prominence of Anglo-Irish families of original Anglo-Norman extraction, prior to the Tudor reconquest in the sixteenth century. Province- kingdoms are capitalised, and the names of lesser kingdoms and peoples mentioned later in the text are in lower case. Chapter 3 deals with Scandinavian colonial settlement, while also addressing pre-colonial Gaelic settlement, and Gaelic settlement contemporary to colonial activity in each of the case-study regions. It also deals briefly with the pre-colonial raiding phase. It assesses the effects of colonial activity on both coloniser and colonised along with the success and failures of the Scandinavian colonial endeavour in terms of the proposed expansion, consolidation and domination model. Chapter 4 does the same for the Anglo-Norman period, beginning with a continuation of the description of Gaelic society, before discussing the re-ordering of the landscape in the phases of Anglo-Norman expansion, consolidation and domination, while also discussing the related parallel processes of acculturation, creolisation and hybridisation, and the retraction of the colony. Chapter 5 comparatively discusses the key features of the colonial phases, while also discussing cross-cultural parallels, and puts forward a theory of colonialism. The final section of the chapter puts forward a theory of colonialism based on the work conducted in this thesis, in the light of other existing theories, and its suitability for use in the analysis of other colonial processes at other points in space and time discussed. Chapter 2. Methods 2. Ethnicity is an extremely relevant topic in modern society. The widespread ethnic conflict of recent decades has led to an increasing prominence of scholarship related to ethnicity across the human and social sciences cf. Edwards , ; Jones , 40ff. Moreover, recent advances in the study of population genetics have brought the genetic aspect of ethnicity back into discussion Cavalli-Sforza ; Jobling ; Capelli et al ; McEvoy et al ; Moore et al ; Hill, Jobling and Bradley This is indicative of the highly problematic nature of the identification of certain types of material culture with supposedly discrete cultural units and ethnic groups. The reading of unsuitable present day conceptions of ethnicity and identity back into the past can be epistemologically unsound cf. Jones Nelson draws attention to existence of the holding of multiple identities by various groups and individuals in the medieval period and to the fluid nature even of ethnic identity. This is highly relevant, as we shall see for Irish Viking Age cities. Ethnicity can be an extremely important anchorage for identity, but not the only anchorage. There are numerous examples of multiple overlapping identities to be found throughout the record of human society. Religious affiliation, consumption choice, geographical 3 While population genetics techniques, such as the examination of Y-chromosomal traits in certain populations, are still in their infancy, genetic evidence could become as important for archaeology as radiocarbondating. Durkheim ; ; Bourdieu ; Maffesoli Material culture can be an important mediator in identity formation, providing a means of shaping both habitus and identity cf. Bourdieu ; DeMarrais ; Gosden However, it fails to take cultural processes into account, it fails to address overlapping identities, and fails to take the epicurean nature of humanity into account. Archaeological thought has sought to move on from the description of past archaeological cultures and onto themes such as environmental adaptation, state formation, and the phenomenological aspects of monument and material culture amongst others. It has largely sought to move beyond the identification of peoples, and to even ignore it. However, the history of knowledge has thought us that paradigm shifts can tend to move too completely from those paradigms preceding it cf. Kuhn ; Popper Certain groups did build specific monuments and used certain types of portable material culture. Therefore, it is both possible and plausible to identify certain groups with certain forms of monument, at least over short spaces of time. In a colonial or migratory episode, new monument forms may appear in an area outside of the society within which they originated. They may be taken, at least initially as indicating activity by a new non-native group in a new area. However, changes may occur in their use and meaning after an initial period of conservatism, and they may be adopted by elements of native society. The existence of a historical record for the period in question means that it is possible to explain the appearance of new monument forms in the landscape in terms of their colonial or non-colonial nature. Certain monuments can be identified as part of a colonial package, all with origins outside Ireland. Other monuments might be developed in a colonial setting as a response to conditions there, or to changing goals there. Cultural homogeneity does not necessarily preclude genetic biological heterogeneity. Despite the existence of colonial society, the ethnic make-up of that society might be mixed, as will be discussed regarding Hiberno-Scandinavian towns. The monuments in this project belong to a number of groupings: Gaelic, Hiberno- Scandinavian and Anglo-Norman. Colonial monuments also can be seen as basically belonging to one of three sub-processes of colonialism: While these sub-processes will be considered in full later in the thesis, along with related processes such as acculturation, hybridisation and creolisation it is worth discussing them at this point. Retrieved 18 January Irish Mirror. Archived from the original on 10 January Retrieved 30 January Archived from the original on 19 April Retrieved 30 January — via Wayback machine. International Air Transport Association. Archived from the original on 23 March Archived from the original on 28 June Archived from the original PDF on 13 November Retrieved 21 February BBC News. Thomas Crosbie Media. Non-Irish Nationalities Living in Ireland". Retrieved 13 October Retrieved 21 July Retrieved 29 July Road Traffic Signs Amendment Regulations, ". Department of Education and Skills. Retrieved 27 October Health Consumer Powerhouse. Archived from the original PDF on 25 May Retrieved 23 November Retrieved 7 September Archived from the original on 29 October Retrieved 27 August Archived from the original on 23 June Free fees. Retrieved 25 July Sauter and Alexander E. Retrieved 5 January Archived from the original PDF on 25 March Retrieved 20 June LA Times. Lawler, Phil 17 September Catholic World News. United Kingdom: National Secular Society. Retrieved 5 September Working and Living in Ireland. Working and Living Publications. What they're still looking for". CBS News. Retrieved 25 May Contemporary Music Centre — Links. Archived from the original on 24 February Archived from the original on 11 August Retrieved 9 February The Daily Show: Celebrity Guests. Archived from the original on 24 November Retrieved 19 November Retrieved 19 October Archived from the original on 13 October Archived from the original on 12 October Archived from the original on 10 May Retrieved 5 November Parish of Turner's Cross. Retrieved 9 November South Dublin County Council. Archived from the original on 3 September Retrieved 13 August Retrieved 31 August Archived from the original on 28 September Retrieved 17 November Retrieved 30 August Saorview official website. European Journalism Centre. Archived from the original on 24 August What's so spooky about barmbrack? Retrieved 15 September Retrieved 19 January GAA official website. Archived from the original PDF on 30 December Archived from the original on 27 August Archived from the original PDF on 12 July Retrieved 5 February Who Stole Our Game? FAI official website. Retrieved 23 February Dublin Marathon official website. Rugby League Planet. Sky Sports. Retrieved 2 September Retrieved 12 October Retrieved 20 December Office of the Attorney General. Archived from the original on 30 September European Court of Human Rights. Retrieved 11 July Dublin, Ireland. Retrieved 5 March Retrieved 27 May Retrieved 23 May Cain Web Service. The Naval Service". CRW Flags. History Ireland. Oral answers. Archived from the original on 10 September Retrieved 15 April Gilland, Karin Neutrality and the International Use of Force. Greenwood, Margaret Rough guide to Ireland. Rough Guides. Mangan, James Clarence Read Books. Meinardus, Otto Friedrich August Two thousand years of Coptic Christianity. American Univ in Cairo Press. Moody, Theodore William A New History of Ireland: Prehistoric and early Ireland. Oxford University Press. Ward, The Irish Constitutional Tradition: Ireland at Wikipedia's sister projects. Ireland topics. Republic of Ireland topics Northern Ireland topics. Nationalism Republicanism Ulster loyalism Unionism. Links to related articles. Connachta incl. Languages of the Republic of Ireland. Irish English. Scots Ulster Scots Shelta. Irish Sign Language. Sovereign states and dependencies of Europe. States with limited recognition. Faroe Islands 1 autonomous country of the Kingdom of Denmark. Svalbard unincorporated area subject to the Svalbard Treaty. British Isles. English Scots. In , as part of the policy response to the unemployment crisis of the economic recession, the Irish government commissioned an examination of the job-creation potential of social enterprise. Furthermore, the description and examples of social enterprises included in the report confirmed the dominance of one model of social enterprise in Ireland — the Work Integration Social Enterprise or WISE. The objective of this paper is to discuss how social economy and social enterprise are understood in Ireland and to explain how WISEs have evolved as the dominant Irish social enterprise model to date. It is argued that the adoption by successive Irish governments of a labour market integration approach, to supporting the development of the Irish social economy, since the early s, has shaped the sector and contributed to the emergence of one dominant social enterprise type, the WISE. Some of the characteristics and impacts of Irish WISE are then discussed together with the challenges they face. In Ireland, the term social economy can be traced to the 18thC and the writings of utopian socialists such as Robert Owens, one of the founders of the Irish co-operative movement Bolger The social economy is typically said to include charities, co-operatives, voluntary, mutual associations and non-profits. In this context, in early , the social economy was defined as that part of the economy, between the private and public sectors, which engages in economic activity in order to meet social objectives FAS Social enterprises were identified as one type of enterprise within this part of the economy. The objective of this paper is to discuss how social economy and social enterprise are understood by academics, practitioners and policy makers in Ireland and to explain how WISEs have evolved as the dominant Irish social enterprise model to date. The paper is an analysis of relevant policy documents, academic publications and draws on the few empirical studies that have been published on the sector. Although Ireland has a long and rich tradition of social economy type organisations, they have not been the focus of academic attention as social enterprises. The role of Christian charitable organisations, most notably the Roman Catholic Church in fields of health, education and welfare has been documented see Ruddle and Donoghue ; Powell and Guerin ; Jaffro , but they have received relatively little attention as social enterprises, per se. Since the s the decline in the numbers of religious personnel has led to their gradual withdrawal from these services with the state taking a more proactive role in developing partnerships with the broader voluntary and community, or charity, sector for the purpose of delivering services and tackling social and economic exclusion in Irish society. The social economy has been subjected to increased levels of academic and policy attention since the early s, with a particular focus on the concept of social enterprise. Use of the term social enterprise in Irish academic discourse tends to reflect either US work on the non-profit sector e. These different academic and policy perspectives have contributed to a general ambiguity about what constitutes the social economy and to a variety of approaches to identifying and mapping the sector. In general, academic approaches to identifying and mapping social enterprises can be broadly characterised as either US or European depending on the weight given to individualistic and hierarchical organisational structures, on the one hand, or collectivisation and democratic ownership on the other Teasdale Even though the term social enterprise had been used in public policy discourse from the early s, it did not appear in any academic mapping exercise of the Irish non-profit sector influenced by the US non-profit approach until a philanthropic-sponsored study of the sector was published in Earlier mapping exercises of Irish non-profits e. Concerns were also raised about accountability within, and regulation of, the sector. A mapping exercise in 4 used the International Classification of Non-Profit Organisations and did not refer specifically to social enterprises. Prizeman and Crossan defined social entrepreneurial enterprises as enterprises, businesses or projects that are run to provide products and services which generate social and environmental return , emphasising the change maker or social entrepreneur, social mission and innovation Forty-two per cent of all social entrepreneurial enterprises were involved in the provision of some State service, all enterprises were driven by social mission and had applied some form of innovation to achieve their social agenda. The study demonstrated the highly diverse and multifaceted nature of the Irish social economy and the complex missions, organisational structures, networks and entrepreneurial behaviours that characterised individual Irish social entrepreneurs and social enterprises Prizeman and Crossan These categories were: Work integration social enterprises provide work and labour market integration primarily for people with disabilities in what were conventionally referred to as workshops or sheltered employment. There is a long tradition in Ireland of using voluntary organisations for the provision of services to people with intellectual and physical disability, which dates back to the early s and was formalised in the Health Act. One of the largest Irish organisations in this field is Rehab. Rehab also oversees one of the largest Irish non-governmental employer of people with disabilities, Rehab social enterprises. These enterprises provides integrated employment opportunities to persons with a disability, out of a total jobs, across a range of sectors including: Structured as co-operatives, credit unions provide financial services and have a membership in Ireland of almost three million, representing a greater proportion of the total population than in almost any other country. The number of credit unions has remained relatively stable over the last two decades with very little contraction in the sector due to amalgamations, transfers or liquidations. Local development organisations or community-based service organisations emerged in the s as part of the state response to the persistence of long-term unemployment and disadvantaged communities and gave rise to a new generation of social enterprises in the context of state support for labour market integration. However, this EMES-type approach was not applied to any systematic mapping of the Irish social economy until a European Commission EC sponsored study was undertaken in , as part of a mapping exercise of social enterprise activity and eco-systems in 29 EU countries. The operational definition of social enterprises used for this latter exercise was based on that used in the EC Social Business Initiative EC 9 and closely mirrored the widely accepted EMES definition of social enterprise. Six types of Irish organisations that might be considered as social enterprises were identified. These included: This inclusion reflects the influence of the US social innovation school of thought. The mapping exercise also referred to the interchangeable use of concepts such as social enterprise and social entrepreneurship in Irish discourse, reflecting the general vagueness surrounding the concept in Ireland. Irish academic discourse, and Irish studies of the social economy and social enterprise, reflects what Teasdale By contrast, in Irish policy discourse, conception of the social economy has been more vigorous and less confused, having been strongly influenced, since the early s, by a European policy perspective that promoted the social economy and social enterprise as a community-based strategy to tackle unemployment and social and economic exclusion. The terms social economy and social enterprise first emerged in Irish policy discourse in the s. Reflecting a European policy 10 trend, the initial national policy debate on the sector was influenced by the National Economic Social Forum NESF study of the job potential of the service sector which identified social enterprises as having the potential to provide goods and services to disadvantaged communities in the instance of market and public failure, and to facilitate local labour market integration NESF The NESF suggested that the activities of organisations operating in the social economy have certain distinguishing features: The NESF recommended that government action be taken to develop the social economy by creating support structures for social economy enterprises and providing subsidies to those enterprises that would recruit from the unemployed NESF These recommendations were subsequently supported by advocacy groups for the unemployed. The brief of the working group was to undertake a detailed examination of the potential of the social economy to provide employment and services in disadvantaged communities. The Group defined the social economy as that part of the economy, between the private and public sectors, which engages in economic activity in order to meet social objectives. They identified three types of social enterprises as targets for government support. These were: Community Businesses: The Working Group recommended the establishment of a national social economy programme that would use existing resources wherever possible to support the sector, particularly the existing Community Employment CE programme. These state programmes became the key stimulus and support for the development of Irish social enterprises. The objective of the Social Economy Programme SEP was to support social enterprises with specific characteristics including community ownership, a local development focus, and the provision of work integration opportunities for the long-term unemployed. The SEP was introduced at a time when Ireland was experiencing virtually full employment and attracting significant inward migration to fill the jobs available. Thus, participating social enterprises were required to have a specific focus on funding local services and providing employment opportunities for particularly disadvantaged groups including those distant from the labour market , or to be addressing market or public service failure in communities, usually as a consequence of either geographical or social isolation. In this way the establishment of new social enterprises was linked explicitly to government objectives of local and community development, the provision of local services and labour market re-integration. An evaluation of the SEP, published in , found that the programme had limited capacity to support the development of social enterprises and that there was insufficient start-up support and enterprise training. The evaluation also questioned the long-term sustainability of the social enterprises supported under the programme WRC In light of the perceived inadequacy of the SEP, PLANET made a further policy submission to the Irish Government in in which they called for a mapping of the sector and the development of a new national policy to strengthen and support the Irish Third Sector. Social enterprises were argued to be typically launched by local citizens and characterised by: By , responsibility for the SEP had transferred from the government department concerned with enterprise and employment to that with responsibility for community and rural affairs, was given more of a service orientation and was renamed as the Community Services Programme CSP. This change of name, and transfer of departmental responsibility for the programme, strengthened the association of social enterprises with locally based community development rather than with enterprise and entrepreneurship. Organisations supported through CSP are expected to secure sufficient income from trading and other sources to deliver properly resourced and viable services and are termed social enterprises by the programme promoters. Funding is in the form of wage subsidies to workers and, in some instances, a manager. CSP the social enterprises are not required, or expected, to become financially sustainable and therefore most remain dependent on state funding. The programme, and its predecessor the SEP, reflects the labour market integration approach to the development of the social economy followed by successive Irish governments since the concept of social enterprise first emerged in policy discourse in the early s. With identifying Irish shenanigans usually akin to searching for a needle in a haystack, being well behaved is usually a stand-out characteristic in the five-year, game Schmidt era. The concession of just eight penalties per game is their stated target and following their latest American trip, just penalties have been conceded an average of 8. Forty-three of the head-to-head penalty counts have also been won against their opposition. They have Aussie Nic Berry, an official they have never encountered before, in charge versus Argentina followed by the appointment of Wayne Barnes, the more familiar English referee, for the series highlight against New Zealand. Ireland full-back Jordan Larmour Getty Images. They were also card free. In sharp contrast, the All Blacks and the Wallabies were penalised 39 times in those games, a penalty every six minutes, and they also suffered five yellow cards..

A peace settlement for Northern Ireland, known check this out the Good Friday Agreementwas approved in in referendums north and south of the border. As part of the peace settlement, the territorial claim to Northern Ireland in Articles 2 and 3 of the Constitution of Ireland was removed by referendum.

The island is bounded to the north M m domination in ireland west by the Atlantic Ocean and to the northeast by the North Channel.

The western landscape mostly consists of rugged cliffs, hills and mountains. The central lowlands are extensively covered with glacial deposits of clay and sand, as well as significant areas of bogland and several M m domination in ireland. River Shannonwhich traverses the central lowlands, is the longest river in Ireland at kilometres or miles in length.

The west coast is more rugged than the east, with numerous islands, peninsulasheadlands and bays. Ireland is the least forested country in Europe. Hedgerowswhich are traditionally used to define land boundaries, are an important substitute for woodland habitat, providing refuge for native wild flora and a wide range of insect, bird and mammal species. Southwestern areas experience the most rainfall as a M m domination in ireland of south westerly winds, while Dublin receives the least. Sunshine duration is highest in the southeast of the country.

The sunniest months are May and June, which average between 5 and 6. The extreme southeast gets most sunshine, averaging over 7 hours a day in early summer. December is the dullest month, with an average daily sunshine ranging from about 1 hour in the north to almost 2 hours in the extreme southeast.

The sunniest summer in the years from to wasaccording to measurements made at the Phoenix Park in Dublin; was the dullest. Ireland is a constitutional republic with a parliamentary M m domination in ireland of government.

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The Oireachtas is the bicameral national parliament composed of the President of Ireland and the two Houses of the Oireachtas: The President serves as head of stateand is elected for a seven-year term and may be re-elected once. The President is primarily a figureheadbut is entrusted with certain read article powers with the advice of the Council of State.

The M m domination in ireland has absolute discretion in some areas, such as referring a bill to the Supreme Court for a judgment on its constitutionality.

Higgins became the ninth President M m domination in ireland Ireland on 11 November Most Taoisigh have served as the leader of the political party that gains the most seats in national elections.

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It has become customary for coalitions to form a government, as there has not been a single-party government since The Seanad is composed of sixty members, with eleven nominated by the Taoiseachsix elected by two universities, and 43 elected by public representatives from panels of candidates established on a vocational basis.

The Government is constitutionally limited to fifteen members. According to the Constitution of Irelandparliamentary elections must be held at least every seven years, though a lower limit may be set by statute M m domination in ireland. It is supported by a number of M m domination in ireland including Shane Ross and former Senator Katherine Zappone. Ireland has been a member state of the European Union sincebut has chosen to remain outside the Schengen Area.

Citizens of the United Kingdom can freely enter the country without a passport due to the Common Travel Areawhich is a passport-free zone comprising the islands of Ireland, Great Britain, the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands. However, some identification is required at airports and seaports. The Local Government Act [69] is the founding document of the present system of local government, while the Twentieth Amendment to the constitution of provided for its constitutional recognition.

The twenty-six traditional counties of Ireland are not always coterminous with administrative divisions although they are generally used as a geographical frame of reference by the population this web page Ireland. The Local Government Reform Act provides for a system of thirty-one local authorities — twenty-six county councils, two city and county councils and three city councils.

Local authorities are responsible for matters such as planning, https://mediumtits.xmp3.fun/page934-jatev.php roads, sanitation, and libraries. Counties with greater populations have multiple constituencies, some of more than one M m domination in ireland, but generally do not cross county boundaries.

The counties are grouped into eight regionseach with a Regional Authority composed of members delegated by the various county and city councils in the region. The regions do not have any direct administrative role as such, but they serve for planning, coordination and statistical purposes. Ireland has a common law legal system with a written constitution that provides for a parliamentary democracy. The court system consists of the Supreme Court M m domination in ireland, the Court of AppealM m domination in ireland High Courtthe Circuit Court and the District Court M m domination in ireland, all of which apply the Irish law and hear both civil and criminal matters.

Trials for serious offences must usually be held before a jury. The High Court, Court M m domination in ireland Appeal and the Supreme Court have authority, by means of judicial reviewto determine the compatibility of laws and activities of other institutions of the state with the constitution and the law.

Except in exceptional circumstances, court hearings must occur in public. The force is responsible for all aspects of civil policing, both in terms of territory and infrastructure. It is headed by the Garda Commissioner, who is appointed by the Government. Most uniformed visit web page do not routinely carry firearms.

Standard policing is traditionally carried out by uniformed officers equipped only with a baton and pepper spray. The Military Police is the corps of the Irish Army responsible for the provision of policing service personnel and providing a military police presence to forces while on exercise and deployment.

M m domination in ireland

Nude mtf Watch Video Japan Sex00. It lies in a pocket of localised low density Gaelic secular settlement c. Those in less strategic locations or in areas of low pre- existing settlement, such as the series south of Limerick probably represent the granting of land in areas favourable to arable agriculture. Their morphology is such that it renders them visible in the landscape. They were large mounds of layers of earth and gravel. That they still stand with such steep slopes today in many parts of north-west Europe is a tribute to the engineering of their builders. They would have had substantial defences, usually of timber, with a tower and palisade located at the summit of the mound. In certain instances mottes may have been constructed by the filling in of a previous ringwork Cathcart King , 42 , as the castle was elaborated in a period of post-expansion consolidation. Mottes often had one or more adjacent defended enclosures, known as baileys, usually constructed in the same manner as a ringwork. These may be of various size and shape, depending on the needs and exact function of the motte within the community. From a military perspective, they were strong fortresses suitable for maintaining the positions gained in an expansion phase. Their morphology was such that they were the materialisation of the power of the new regional elite cf. DeMarrais ; Elias , 41ff. They would have been among the largest structures in Ireland at that time, with only ecclesiastic round towers taller than them, and no structures more massive. They also became economic nodes, functioning as manorial centres in the following phase of colonial domination. They are to be found in areas of varying previous settlement density. They avoid some areas of dense Gaelic settlement such the north and west of Co. Wexford, possibly indicating continuity of Gaelic settlement patterns and a low colonial impact in these areas cf. Barrett and Graham There was an avoidance of high elevations, although mottes are found in river valleys in areas of upland. The latter site is arguably in a more strategic location, close to the confluence of the Slaney and a tributary. In Co. Kilkenny, the motte and bailey at Westcourt Demesne and the ringwork at Castletobin possibly share a similar association, lying 1. This may be taken as indicating church collusion. In north Co. Wexford, the possible early ecclesiastic site at Barnadown and the motte and Bailey at Loggan Lower lie c. In the south of the county, the motte and ecclesiastical site at Duncormick lie less than m apart, and in the townland of Hooks, a motte and early ecclesiastic site lie c. In western Wexford, a motte and possible early ecclesiastic site lie c. At Doonooney, a motte and ecclesiastic site are located c. To the north of Wexford Harbour, the ecclesiastic site of Beggerin Island and the motte at Ballinamorragh are located c. At Grangefertagh, in north-west Co. Kilkenny, itself an area of dense Gaelic settlement, a motte and ecclesiastic site lie c. At Killamerry in the south of the county, a motte and ecclesiastic site are roughly m apart. At Lismateige, a motte and ecclesiastical site are located c. Waterford, the motte at Pembrokestown and the ecclesiastic site at Lougdeheen are located less than 1km apart. These latter sites would have been nodal points in the ideological power network, as well as possibly being arable agricultural economic production centres. It would seem as though some mottes replaced ringworks, either directly by being constructed over them cf. Cathcart King , 42 , or figuratively. Motte and ringwork builders in the south- east avoided higher elevations, which while most likely for agricultural reasons, also meant that they made no major incursions into areas of Gaelic settlement. Both are located close to the coast in low lying areas characterised by limited local Gaelic secular settlement evidence. South of the Shannon, the motte and bailey at Shanid Upper is located in an area of dense Gaelic settlement. The motte at Burgesbeg, Co. As it stands there seems to be no correlation between motte distribution and pre-Anglo-Norman ecclesiastic sites in the mid-west case-study region. Ringworks may have been utilised instead , It is likely that the reason that fewer mottes appear west of the Shannon because the labour was not available for motte construction, meaning that fewer mottes were built, and that fewer ringworks were replaced with mottes compared to elsewhere. It would also seem as though there is little or no correlation between the location of mottes and early ecclesiastic sites, cf. Therefore, it can be said that consolidation was limited in the mid-west, as had expansion before it. They may theoretically have played a part in colonial expansion phases, such as in the Levant, but the man-hours necessary to construct this form would have made them very inefficient for the purpose. As noted earlier, a number of them seem to be sited on former ringwork castles, such as at Kilkenny, Carlow, Ferns, Adare and Limerick, indicating both continuity of settlement, and the strategic nature of settlement in the expansion phase. There are instances of stone castles being used in consolidation activity, but their expense would have made them inefficient for this purpose, and in this phase there would still have been the danger of such powerful military technology falling into native hands. However, a hierarchy of settlement is also a feature of the domination sub- phase of colonialism, and so nucleated settlements such as towns and villages, dispersed colonial settlement, Continental religious houses and the continued use of monuments constructed as part of the previous phases of expansion and consolidation must all be considered as part of the domination phase. In addition to their roles as centres for the exercise of social power, as centres for redistribution, proto-industrial and legal activity, these castles of the domination phase were also highly metonymic, representing the new political system in the minds of those viewing the castle. They were the materialisation of an entire social system. They provide prime examples of the use of conspicuous monumentality as means of social control cf. Elias ; Veblen While their form may have been due to status anxiety cf. Renfrew or the edifice complex associated with absolute power, their primary symbolic function was the portrayal of a message of dominance. Kilkenny Table 4. Where associated with more than one sub-process, they have been listed in the order of their level of association. This is only an approximation, for the purpose of explanation, rather than a positivistic attempt to apply cybernetics to the Anglo-Norman settlement pattern. Anglo-Norman masonry castles in Ireland sat at the head of a local and regional central place hierarchy. Tables 4. For military, economic and administrative purposes, it stands to reason that castles would adhere to some form of spatial patterning, especially in a colonial setting. Their siting was influenced by a number of factors. The first would be actual location within the local polity. The castle would have to be in a location best suited to exploit the economic resources of the area. It would also have to be in a defensible location, for military reasons. The siting of the centre would also have to take into account the location of other such centres, both for military and economic reasons. The extent of nucleation is difficult to surmise. McNeill, commenting on the spatial organisation of colonialism in Ulster notes that the manorial centres of the earldom of Ulster were places where tenants went to periodically as opposed to being permanent centres of population , Graham , , in his study of Anglo- Norman settlement in the lordship of Meath identifies 98 possible former villages, each located where castles and churches juxtaposed in the landscape. The conferral of borough status usually indicates the incorporation of a town. It is significant that not all mottes and ringworks were replaced with masonry castles in the domination phase, as figure 4. This can be taken as indicative of a settlement hierarchy, even without recourse to documentary evidence. An indication of continuity from the phases of expansion and consolidation to the phase of colonial domination can be ascertained from figure 4. A number of masonry castles are located on or close to the sites of pre-existing castles. The excavations at Kilkenny, Carlow, and Ferns Castles, all nodal points in the local network of power relations, have provided evidence for direct continuity from ringwork to masonry castle. There is also evidence on the map for continuity from motte to masonry castle. The masonry castle at Clonmore, Co. Wexford is located c. Whether or not one replaced the other is difficult to ascertain, but they were certainly either synchronically or diachronically related. The masonry castle at Tullowphelim Co. Carlow seems to have replaced the motte there. The masonry castle at Enniscorthy, Co. Wexford is located upstream from the motte at Salville or Motabeg and the ringwork at Dunanore located at either side of the Slaney. According to Colfer , 76 , there may have been a motte at Enniscorthy prior to the construction of the masonry castle constructed by the Prendergasts in the s. Nucleated Settlement Figure 4. This was strategic from both a military and symbolic perspective, as it was militarily important to hold such sites, and it was symbolically important to be seen holding them. The majority are associated with castles, which might precede the foundation of the town, or post-date it. An exception seems to be New Ross, although it may be that a castle there has not been identified or classified. Again, New Ross is an exception. Future research may uncover further relationships. Parishes and manors were often coterminous, in much the same manner as parishes often represent secular political boundaries in Gaelic Ireland in the high and late medieval cf. MacCotter ; Watt Therefore, by mapping known high medieval parish churches, it is possible to gain an approximation of the overall density of settlement, as the higher the number of parish churches in a region, the more intensely that region is settled. Brooks These fees underpinned the entire feudal system in the greater Angevin empire to which Anglo-Norman Ireland belonged Bloch ; Critchley The more intensely cultivated and productive land was, the more profit could be extracted from it, with the likely result of it becoming more densely populated and subdivided. So by mapping the distribution of high medieval parish churches it is possible to gain an approximation of the intensity of land use and the related settlement pattern. However, castles seem to be relatively low in number in the area compared with other parts of the case-study region. The area, corresponding to the baronies of Forth and Bargy seems to have remained one of the most anglicised parts of the island until relatively modern times, both in custom and language Colfer ; Roche ; Estyn Evans A separate dialect of English, Yola, survived there until the nineteenth century. This had been an area of low pre-colonial Gaelic settlement, so perhaps less pacification was necessary. The construction of a large number of tower houses in the area in the later medieval period may obscure any earlier encastellation there. Stout Perhaps also victory of Raymond le Gros over all of the potentially hostile parties prior to the invasion proper negated the need for extensive encastellation in the area. It is also interesting to note that the proposed hinterlands of Hiberno-Scandinavian Wexford and Waterford seem to be located in dense zones of Anglo-Norman settlement, possibly an indication of the swift incorporation of Hiberno-Scandinavian settlers into the new colonial polity. However, this may also just indicate that this region was ill suited to arable agriculture and better suited to pastoralism cf. As noted in chapter 2, their true distribution is difficult to assess, as many may remain undiscovered with little or no diagnostic surface features, and none have been identified as yet in Co. Wexford, despite the obvious density of settlement there. From what evidence exists, they have no direct associations with masonry castles, but a number do seem to have been associated with mottes, such as at Coolbunnia, Co. Waterford and Fiddown, Co. This is a necessarily dense and complicated map, whose function is to show the variety of possible associations. The ringwork at Rathealy, Co. Kilkenny is the only directly associated ringwork in the region. The only directly associated pre-Norman ecclesiastic sites are Killamery, Castlestown, and Grangefertagh, Co. Kilkenny and Old Leighlin, Co. Donnelly-Cox, G. Donoghue, and R. Taylor, eds. The Third sector in Ireland , special issue of Voluntas , 12 3 , September Donoghue, F. Salamon, and H. National College of Ireland. Anheier, and L. National College of Ireland; Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University. Prizeman, A. Trinity College Dublin. Doyle, G. Social Enterprise — Context and Challenges. Dublin Employment Pact and Clann Credo. Lalor, eds. Social Enterprise in Ireland: Environment, Community and Local Government. Housing Policy Statement. Publications Office, Luxembourg: Government Of Ireland, Dublin, Ireland. European Commission. European Commission Publication. Country Report — Ireland. Fahey, T. Social Housing in Ireland: Favreau, L. Favreau, and J. Review of Labour Market Programmes. Social Economy Framework Document. Government of Ireland. National Housing Policy Statement. Department of Environment, Community and Local Government. Action Plan for Jobs Government Publications. Harvey, B. Downsizing the Community Sector: Irish Congress of Trade Union. Hynes, B. Jaffro, G. Kerlin, J. Understanding and Learning From the Differences. Leigh-Doyle, S. Lyon, F. Teasdale, and R. The Case of the UK. McGuiness, S. Kelly, and J. Painting the right picture for the officials at the breakdown is an imperative. Therefore, they have got to do a lap around the pitch and when they get back they will be tired. What good behaviour does for Ireland is help level the playing field. They are never going to consistently match the more offloading sides in the skills department, but being disciplined goes a long way towards bridging the gap. In their 39 matches since lifting the World Cup the All Blacks, whose concession tally was seven in Japan, have conceded a total of penalties a per-game average of 9. Israel Folau chose to ignore conduct warning. Connect with Irish Times Sport. Follow IrishTimesSport. Latest Sport. AIL clubs are in an unsustainable mess Emotional Rory Best happy to leave rugby on his terms Wales defeated France in the tournament's opening match held in Paris Friday night. George North scored two tries while Gareth Anscombe notched two conversions. Why Georgia has rugby on its mind ahead of the World Cup. Rugby United New York prepares for its debut season. This year's Six Nations began by fielding one of the strongest collection of teams in the tournament's history. Healthcare in Ireland is provided by both public and private healthcare providers. Every resident of Ireland is entitled to receive health care through the public health care system, which is managed by the Health Service Executive and funded by general taxation. A person may be required to pay a subsidised fee for certain health care received; this depends on income, age, illness or disability. All maternity services are provided free of charge and children up to the age of 6 months. Emergency care is provided to patients who present to a hospital emergency department. In some circumstances this fee is not payable or may be waived. Anyone holding a European Health Insurance Card is entitled to free maintenance and treatment in public beds in Health Service Executive and voluntary hospitals. Outpatient services are also provided for free. However, the majority of patients on median incomes or above are required to pay subsidised hospital charges. Private health insurance is available to the population for those who want to avail of it. The average life expectancy in Ireland in is 81 years OECD average life expectancy in was 80 years , with Ireland has three levels of education: The education systems are largely under the direction of the Government via the Minister for Education and Skills. Recognised primary and secondary schools must adhere to the curriculum established by the relevant authorities. Education is compulsory between the ages of six and fifteen years, and all children up to the age of eighteen must complete the first three years of secondary, including one sitting of the Junior Certificate examination. There are approximately 3, primary schools in Ireland. Schools run by religious organisations, but receiving public money and recognition, cannot discriminate against pupils based upon religion or lack thereof. A sanctioned system of preference does exist, where students of a particular religion may be accepted before those who do not share the ethos of the school, in a case where a school's quota has already been reached. The Leaving Certificate , which is taken after two years of study, is the final examination in the secondary school system. Those intending to pursue higher education normally take this examination, with access to third-level courses generally depending on results obtained from the best six subjects taken, on a competitive basis. The Programme for International Student Assessment , coordinated by the OECD , currently ranks Ireland as having the fourth highest reading score, ninth highest science score and thirteenth highest mathematics score, among OECD countries, in its assessment. In addition, 37 percent of Ireland's population has a university or college degree , which is among the highest percentages in the world. Religious freedom is constitutionally provided for in Ireland. Christianity is the predominant religion, and while Ireland remains a predominantly Catholic country, the percentage of the population who identified as Catholic on the census has fallen sharply from Other results from the census are: The Church of Ireland , at 2. Membership declined throughout the twentieth century, but experienced an increase early in the 21st century, as have other small Christian denominations. Immigration has contributed to a growth in Hindu and Muslim populations. Saint Patrick is the only one commonly recognised as the patron saint. Saint Patrick's Day is celebrated on 17 March in Ireland and abroad as the Irish national day, with parades and other celebrations. As with other predominantly Catholic European states, Ireland underwent a period of legal secularisation in the late twentieth century. In , the article of the Constitution naming specific religious groups was deleted by the Fifth Amendment in a referendum. Article 44 remains in the Constitution: It shall hold His Name in reverence, and shall respect and honour religion. Religious studies was introduced as an optional Junior Certificate subject in Although many schools are run by religious organisations, a secularist trend is occurring among younger generations. Ireland's culture was for centuries predominantly Gaelic , and it remains one of the six principal Celtic nations. Following the Anglo-Norman invasion in the 12th century, and gradual British conquest and colonisation beginning in the 16th century, Ireland became influenced by English and Scottish culture. Subsequently, Irish culture, though distinct in many aspects, shares characteristics with the Anglosphere , Catholic Europe , and other Celtic regions. The Irish diaspora , one of the world's largest and most dispersed, has contributed to the globalisation of Irish culture, producing many prominent figures in art, music, and science. Ireland has made a significant contribution to world literature in both the English and Irish languages. Modern Irish fiction began with the publishing of the novel Gulliver's Travels by Jonathan Swift. Bram Stoker is best known as the author of the novel Dracula. James Joyce — published his most famous work Ulysses in , which is an interpretation of the Odyssey set in Dublin. Edith Somerville continued writing after the death of her partner Martin Ross in Dublin's Annie M. Smithson was one of several authors catering for fans of romantic fiction in the s and s. Patricia Lynch was a prolific children's author in the 20th century, while Eoin Colfer 's works were NYT Best Sellers in this genre in the early 21st century. The history of Irish theatre begins with the expansion of the English administration in Dublin during the early 17th century, and since then, Ireland has significantly contributed to English drama. In its early history, theatrical productions in Ireland tended to serve political purposes, but as more theatres opened and the popular audience grew, a more diverse range of entertainments were staged. Many Dublin-based theatres developed links with their London equivalents, and British productions frequently found their way to the Irish stage. However, most Irish playwrights went abroad to establish themselves. In the 18th century, Oliver Goldsmith and Richard Brinsley Sheridan were two of the most successful playwrights on the London stage at that time. At the beginning of the 20th century, theatre companies dedicated to the staging of Irish plays and the development of writers, directors and performers began to emerge, which allowed many Irish playwrights to learn their trade and establish their reputations in Ireland rather than in Britain or the United States. Irish traditional music has remained vibrant, despite globalising cultural forces, and retains many traditional aspects. It has influenced various music genres, such as American country and roots music, and to some extent modern rock. It has occasionally been blended with styles such as rock and roll and punk rock. Ireland has also produced many internationally known artists in other genres, such as rock, pop, jazz, and blues. Ireland's best selling musical act is the rock band U2 , who have sold million copies of their albums worldwide since their formation in Opera Ireland produces large-scale operas in Dublin, the Opera Theatre Company tours its chamber-style operas throughout the country, and the annual Wexford Opera Festival , which promotes lesser-known operas, takes place during October and November. Ireland has participated in the Eurovision Song Contest since The phenomenon Riverdance originated as an interval performance during the contest. Irish dance can broadly be divided into social dance and performance dance. There are also many stylistic differences between these two forms. Irish social dance is a living tradition, and variations in particular dances are found across the country. In some places dances are deliberately modified and new dances are choreographed. Performance dance is traditionally referred to as stepdance. Irish stepdance , popularised by the show Riverdance , is notable for its rapid leg movements, with the body and arms being kept largely stationary. The solo stepdance is generally characterised by a controlled but not rigid upper body, straight arms, and quick, precise movements of the feet. The solo dances can either be in "soft shoe" or "hard shoe". The country instead had an extended period of Iron Age architecture. Christianity introduced simple monastic houses , such as Clonmacnoise , Skellig Michael and Scattery Island. A stylistic similarity has been remarked between these double monasteries and those of the Copts of Egypt. Castles were built by the Anglo-Normans during the late 12th century, such as Dublin Castle and Kilkenny Castle , [] and the concept of the planned walled trading town was introduced, which gained legal status and several rights by grant of a Charter under Feudalism. These charters specifically governed the design of these towns. These episodes of planned settlement account for the majority of present-day towns throughout the country. Gothic cathedrals, such as St Patrick's , were also introduced by the Normans. Beginning with the American designed art deco church at Turner's Cross in , Irish architecture followed the international trend towards modern and sleek building styles since the 20th century. The Royal Institute of the Architects of Ireland regulates the practice of architecture in the state. All these channels are available on Saorview , the national free-to-air digital terrestrial television service. Subscription-based television providers operating in Ireland include Virgin Media and Sky. Supported by the Irish Film Board , the Irish film industry grew significantly since the s, with the promotion of indigenous films as well as the attraction of international productions like Braveheart and Saving Private Ryan. A large number of regional and local radio stations are available countrywide. It also operates four national DAB radio stations. There are two independent national stations: Today FM and Newstalk. Ireland has a traditionally competitive print media, which is divided into daily national newspapers and weekly regional newspapers, as well as national Sunday editions. The strength of the British press is a unique feature of the Irish print media scene, with the availability of a wide selection of British published newspapers and magazines. Irish cuisine was traditionally based on meat and dairy products, supplemented with vegetables and seafood. Examples of popular Irish cuisine include boxty , colcannon , coddle , stew , and bacon and cabbage. Ireland is famous for the full Irish breakfast , which involves a fried or grilled meal generally consisting of rashers, egg, sausage, white and black pudding, and fried tomato. Apart from the influence by European and international dishes, there has been an emergence of a new Irish cuisine based on traditional ingredients handled in new ways. Shellfish have increased in popularity, especially due to the high quality shellfish available from the country's coastline. The most popular fish include salmon and cod. Moving up? Tips to increase the value of your home when selling. Cork becomes focus as first-time buyer's mortgage event heads south. Commenting on The Irish Times has changed. To comment you must now be an Irish Times subscriber. The account details entered are not currently associated with an Irish Times subscription. Please subscribe to sign in to comment..

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